Notes to Richard F. Green, "The Sexual Normality of Chaucer's Pardoner"


1. I had already completed a preliminary draft of this paper when my attention was drawn to Professor Benson's forthcoming article. It became at once clear to me as I read the typescript that Professor Benson was kind enough to send me that on very many points our thinking was virtually identical. I have therefore recast my original paper as an appendix to "Chaucer's Pardoner: His Sexuality and Modem Critics" in the hope that my thoughts may help to confirm its general conclusions.

2. "How Many Children Had Lady Macbeth?" in Explorations (London, 1951), P. 15.

3. See A. W. Hoffman, "Chaucer's Prologue to Pilgrimage: the Two Voices," English Literary History, 21 (1954), 12-14.

4. All references are to the Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, ed. F. N. Robinson, 2nd ed. (Boston, 1957).

5. D. Biggins, "More Chaucerian Ambiguities," Notes and Queries, 207 (1962), 166.

6. The Works of Sir John Clanvowe, ed. V. J. Scattergood (Cambridge, 1975), pp. 71-72.

7. See also E. J. Bashe, "The Prologue of the Tale of Beryn," Philological Quarterly, 12 (1933), 1-16.

8. The Tale of Beryn, ed. F. J. Fumivall & W. G. Stone, EETS, ES 105 (London, 1909), p. 2.

9. Donald R. Howard, The Idea of the Canterbury Tales (Berkeley, 1978), p. 344.

10. See D. Wurtele, "Some Uses of Physiognomical Lore in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales," The Chaucer Review, 17 (1982), 138-39.

11. Caxton's Malory, ed. J. W. Spisak (Berkeley, 1983), p. 147.

12. See M. Storm, "Troilus, Mars, and Late Medieval Chivalry," Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 12 (1982), 45-47.

13. Lotario Dei Segni, De Miseria Condicionis Humanae, ed. R. E. Lewis (Athens, Georgia, 1978), p. 171.

14. The Countesse of Pembrokes Arcadia, ed. A. Feuillerat (Cambridge, 1912), p. 78 (I, 12, 5).

15. Three Prose Versions of the Secreta Secretorum, ed. R. Steele, EETS, ES 74 (London, 1898), p. 139.

16. Steele, ed., pp. 14 and 58; Secretum Secretorum, ed. M. A. Manzalaoui. EETS, 276 (London, 1977), p. 135.

17. Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, Poems, ed. E. Jones (Oxford, 1964), p. 29 (32, 9-10).

18. "Now how lechery softens and relaxes a manly spirit and discipline is shown by Sardanapalus.... This man from being amongst women became softer than any woman and was converted to female ways of acting and dressing"; Speculum Morale (1624; Graz, 1964), p. 1378 (III, 3, 9). See Speculum Historiale (Graz, 1965), p. 77 (II, 93).

19. Gesta Romanorum, ed. H. Oesterley (Berlin, 1872), p. 616; Moralitates (Simon de Luere, 1514), f. 8b.

20. G. C. Macaulay, ed., EETS, ES 81 & 82 (London, 1900-01), II, 356 (VII, 4318-27).

21. H. Bergen, ed., EETS, ES 121-24 (London, 1924-27), I, 263 (II, 2241-45).

22. "Flatterers, liars, and libertines reeking of the brothel -- scum who are shunned by all men"; ed. Bergen, IV, 177.

23. E. Sieper, ed., EETS, ES 84 (London, 1901), p. 102 (3866-95).

24. "No man alive is so wise, no matter how firm his resolve or how full of virtue and goodness, that if he sates himself in her well, fringed with the reeds of puberty, he will not become soft and flaccid'; ed. C. De Boer, vol. 2 (Amsterdam, 1920), p. 60 (IV, 2269-74).