Indus Civilization Bibliography

 

General Monographs

  1. Kenoyer, J.M., "Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization", Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, Delhi, 1998. [Basic introduction. Selections of this is available on Reserves.]
  2. Jansen, Michael, "Mohenjo-Daro, Stadt der Brunnen und Kanale: Wasserluxus vor 4500 Jahren = Mohenjo-Daro, City of Wells and Drains: Water Splendor 4500 years ago", Bonn, 1993. [This is a dual language book with many photographs, good to get a basic idea of the Indus Civilization.]
  3. Possehl, G.L., "Indus Age; The Beginnings", Oxford and IBH Publishing, New Delhi, 1999. [A very detailed description.]
  4. Possehl, G.L., "Harappan Civilization: a Recent Perspective", Oxford and IBH Publications, New Delhi, 1993.
  5. Allchin, F. Raymond, ed., "The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995. [General detailed background reading.]
  6. Allchin, Raymond and Bridget, "Origins of a Civilization: The Prehistory and Early Archaeology of South Asia", New Delhi, 1997. [General detailed background reading.]
  7. Chakrabarti, Dilip K., "The Archaeology of Ancient Indian Cities", Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1995. [Contain both Harappa and early historic cities. Good for comparison.]
  8. Gupta, S.P., "The Indus-Saraswati Civilization", Pratibha Prakashan, Delhi, 1996. [After the partition of India and Pakistan, Indian Government spent money and energy to look for Indus Civilization on the Indian side of the border and numerous sites were discovered as result. This gives a detailed description of the Indus sites in India.]
  9. Agrawal, D.P., "The Archaeology of India", Curzon Press, London, 1982.
  10. Fairservis, W.A., Jr., "The Roots of Ancient India", revised 2nd Edition, Chicago University Press, 1975.
  11. Kenoyer, J.M., ed., "Old Problems and New Perspectives in the Archaeology of South Asia", Wisconsin Archaeological Reports 2, Madison, 1989.
  12. Allchin, Bridget and F. Raymond, "The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan", Cambridge University Press, 1982.
  13. Possehl, G.L., "Ancient Cities of the Indus", Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, 1979. [Detailed background information.]
  14. Lal, B.B., "The Earliest Civilization of South Asia", Aryan Books International, New Delhi, 1997.
  15. Kenoyer, J.M., ed., "From Sumer to Melluhha: Contributions to the Archaeology of South and West Asia in Memory of George F. Dales, Jr.", Wisconsin Archaeological Report 3, Madison, 1994.
  16. Lal, B.B. and S.P. Gupta, "Frontiers of the Indus Civilization", New Delhi, 1984.
  17. Marshall, Sir John, "Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization", 3 Volumes, London, 1931. [One of the early publications which will give an insight to the early ideas on Indus.]
  18. Piggot, Stuart, "Prehistoric India", Penguin, London, 1950. [An early publication on Indus.]
  19. Wheeler, R.E.M., "The Indus Civilization", 3rd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1968. [An early publication.]

 

Early Indus civilization

  1. Shaffer, J.G., "The Indus Valley, Baluchistan and Helmand Traditions: Neolithic through Bronze Age", in "Chronologies in Old World Archaeology" edited by R.W. Ehrich, Third Edition, Vol. I, pp. 441 – 464 & Vol. II, pp. 425 – 446, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1992. [Provides maps and diagrams with the dates which helps to understand the dates and sequences.]
  2. Shaffer, J.G. and B.K. Thapar, "Pre-Indus and Early Indus Cultures of Pakistan and India", in "History of Civilization of Central Asia" edited by A.H. Dani and V.H. Masson, Vol. I, pp. 247 – 281, UNESCO Publishing, Paris, 1996. [Geographical distribution of early Indus sites.]
  3. Mughal, M.R., "Further Evidence of the Early Harappan Culture in the Greater Indus Valley: 1971 – 1990", in "South Asian Studies", No. 6, pp. 175 – 199, 1990. [Pre-Indus sites and early Indus cultural continuity.]
  4. Mughal, M.R., "The Rise of Indus Civilization", in "Forgotten Cities on the Indus" edited by M. Jansen, M. Mulloy and G. Urban, pp. 104 – 110, Phillip Von Zabern, Maniz, Germany, 1991. [Early Indus, Kot Diji phase.]
  5. Possehl, G.L., "Revolution in the Urban Revolution: the Emergence of the Indus Urbanization", in "Annual Review of Anthropology", No. 19, pp. 261 – 282, 1990. [Early Indus and changes.]
  6. Possehl, G.L., "Conclusions: the Early Harappan Stage, a prelude to Civilization?", in "Indus Age: The Beginnings" by G.L. Possehl, pp. 713 – 725, Oxford and IBH, New Delhi, 1999. [Development of Architecture from early Indus, social stratification, writing, etc.]

 

Architecture and City Planning of Indus Civilization

Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa

    1. Jansen, Michael, "Mohenjo-Daro, Stadt der Brunnen und Kanale: Wasserluxus vor 4500 Jahren = Mohenjo-Daro, City of Wells and Drains: Water Splendor 4500 years ago", Bonn, 1993. [This is a dual language book with many photographs, good to get a basic idea of the Indus Civilization.]
    2. Wheeler, Sir Robert Eric Mortimer, "Harappa 1946: The Defenses and the Cemetery R37" in "Ancient India", No. 3, pp. 59 – 130, 1947.
    3. Meadow, Richard H., Jonathan Mark Kenoyer and Rita P. Wright, "Harappan Archaeological Research Project: 1997 Excavations", Report submitted to the Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Pakistan, 1998.
    4. Meadow, Richard H. and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, "Excavations at Harappa 1994 – 1995: New Perspectives on Script, Craft activities and city organization" in "South Asian Archaeology 1995" edited by Raymond and Bridget Allchin, pp. 139 – 172, Oxford and IBH Publications, New Delhi, 1997.
    5. Meadow, Richard H. and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, "Harappa Excavations 1993: City walls and inscribed materials" in "South Asian Archaeology 1993" edited by Asko Parpola and Petteri Koskikallio, pp. 451 – 470, Helsinki, 1994.
    6. Fentress, Marcia A., "The Indus ‘Granaries’: Illusion, Imagination and Archaeological Reconstruction", in "Studies in the Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology of South Asia" edited by Kenneth A.R. Kennedy and Gregory L. Possehl, pp. 89 – 97, Oxford and IBH Publication, New Delhi, 1984.
    7.  

      Other Sites

      These are reports of various Indus sites which have been excavated. These are good for comparison with the two major cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa as well as to study the uniformity of Urban planning within the Indus Civilization.

      1. Bisht, R.S., "Excavations at Dholavira, District Kutch" in "Indian Archaeology 1990-91: A Review", pp. 10 – 12 & Plates VII – XIV, 1995.
      2. Bisht, R.S., "Excavations at Dholavira, District Kutch" in "Indian Archaeology 1991-92: A Review", pp. 26 – 35 & Plates XVII – XXIII, 1996.
      3. Dales, G.F. and C.P. Lipo, "Excavations at Sutkagen-dor" in "Explorations of the Makran Coast, Pakistan: A Search for Paradise", pp. 135 – 156, Berkeley Archaeological Research Facility of the University of California, 1992.
      4. Dales, G.F., "The Balakot Project: Summary of Four Years of Excavations in Pakistan", in "South Asian Archaeology 1977", edited by M. Taddei, pp. 241 – 274, Naples, 1979.
      5. Dhavalikar, M.K., "Kuntasi: A Harappan Port in Western India", in "South Asian Achaeology 1989" edited by C. Jarrige, pp. 73 – 81, Prehistory Press, Madison, Wisconsin, 1992.
      6. Fairservis, W.A., Jr., "Allahdino: An Excavation of a Small Harappan Site", in "Harappan Civilization: A Recent Perspective" edited by G.L. Possehl, Second Revised Edition, pp. 107 – 112, 1993.
      7. Jarrige, C., "The Mature Indus Phase at Nausharo as seen from a block of Period III" in "South Asian Archaeology 1993", edited by Asko Parpola and Petteri Koskikallio, pp. 281 – 294, Helsinki, 1994.
      8. Jarrige, J.F., ed., "Excavations at Mehrgarh – Nausharo, 22nd Season, 1995 – 1996", Musee Guimet, Paris, 1996.
      9. Lal, B.B., "The Earliest Civilization of South Asia", Aryan Books Internationa, New Delhi, 1997. [Monograph]
      10. Mariani, Luca, "The Eastern Residential Area at Shahr-i Sokhta" in "South Asian Archaeology 1989" edited by C. Jarrige, pp. 181 – 193, Prehistory Press, Madison, Wisconsin, 1992.
      11. Possehl, G.L. and D.P. Mehta, "Excavations at Rojdi, 1992 – 93" in "South Asian Archaeology 1993", edited by Asko Parpola and Petteri Koskikallio, pp. 603 - 614, Helsinki, 1994.
      12. Thapar, B.K., "Recent Archaeological Discoveries in India" UNESCO Publicaiton, Paris, 1985. [Mongraph]

 

Script and Language of the Indus Civilization

These discuss the Indus script taking evidence from all the sites.

  1. Possehl, G.L, "Indus Age – The Writing" Oxford and IBH Publications, New Delhi, 1999. [This is a good source to touch on all the different attempts on deciphering the Indus script, the approaches and assumptions.]
  2. Parpola, A., "Deciphering the Indus Script", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993. [Interesting monograph.]
  3. Zvelebil, K.V., "Dravidian and ‘Harappan’" in "Dravidian Linguistics: an Introduction", by K.V. Zvelebil, pp. 84 – 98, 1990. [This discusses the Dravidian as been proto-Indus.]
  4. Also refer to the General Monographs for introductions and thoughts.

 

Indus script from particular sites.

  1. Quivron, G., "Incised and Painted marks on the Pottery of Mehrgarh and Nausharo – Balichistan" in "South Asian Archaeology 1995" edited by Raymond and Bridget Allchin, pp. 45 – 62, Oxford and IBH Publications, New Delhi, 1997.
  2. Pande, B.M., "Inscribed Copper Tablets from Mohenjo-Daro: A Preliminary Analysis" in "Radio Carbon and Indian Archaeology", edited by D.P. Agrawal and A.K. Ghosh, pp. 305 – 322, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay, 1973.
  3. Pande, B.M., "Inscribed Harappan Material from Kalibangan: Some Remarks on Methodology and Approach" in "Puratattva" No. 8, pp. 156 – 157, 1978.
  4. Meadow, Richard H. and J.M. Kenoyer, "The Tiny steatite Seals of Harappa: Some Observations on their context and dating" in "South Asian Archaeology 1997"

 

Society, political structure and religion of the Indus Civilization

  1. Kenoyer, J.M., "Ornaments styles of the Indus Valley Tradition: Evidence from Recent Excavations in Harappa, Pakistan" in "Paleorient" No. 17 (2), pp. 79 – 98, 1991. [A very interesting and unique study of ornaments.]
  2. Kenoyer, J.M., "People and Professions", "Ancient Cities of the Indus Civilization", pp. 126 – 147, Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, Delhi, 1998. [Society]
  3. Jarrige, C., "The Figurines from Nausharo Period I and their further Developments" in "South Asian Archaeology 1995", edited by Raymond and Bridget Allchin, pp. 33 – 43, Oxford and IBH Publications, New Delhi, 1997. [Development of Figurines and their differences.]
  4. During-Caspers, E.C.L., "Vanity Portrayed in Clay: the Female terracotta figurines from Harappa" in "South Asian Archaeology 1993", edited by Asko Parpola and Petteri Koskikallio, pp. 183 - 191, Helsinki, 1994. [Discussion of society through art.]
  5. Miller, Daniel, "Ideology and the Harappan Civilization" in "Journal of Anthropological Archaeology", No. 4, pp. 34 – 71, 1985.
  6. Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C., "The Indus Civilization: the Case for Caste Formation", Brill, Leiden, 1999.
  7. Maisels, Charles Keith, "The Indus / ‘Harappan’ / Sarasvati Civilization" in "Early Civilizations of the Old World", pp. 186 – 259, Routledge, London & New York, 1999.
  8. Possehl, G.L., "Sociocultural Complexity without the State: the Indus Civilization" in "Archaic States" edited by G.M. Feinman and J. Marcus, pp. 260 – 291, 1998.
  9. Kenoyer, J.M., "The Harappan State: Was it or Wasn’t it?" in "From Sumer to Meluhha" edited by J.M. Kenoyer, pp. 71 – 80, 1994.

 

Trade and Interaction with other Civilizations

  1. Possehl, G.L., "Indus Age: The Beginnings", pp. 228 – 238, Oxford and IBH Publications, New Delhi, 1999. [Sections on shell and mineral resources. This discuss gathering of resources from outside the Indus area.]
  2. Edens, C., "Indus – Arabian Interaction during the Bronze Age: A Review of Evidence" in "Harappan Civilization: A Recent Perspective", edited by G.L. Possehl, pp. 335 – 363, Oxford and IBH Publications, New Delhi, 1993. [Resource gathering for Indus.]
  3. Tosi, M., "The Harappan Civilization Beyond the Indian Subcontinent" in "Harappan Civilization: A Recent Perspective", edited by G.L. Possehl, pp. 365 – 378, Oxford and IBH Publications, New Delhi, 1993. [Resource collection for Indus.]
  4. Cleuziou, S., "The Oman Peninsula and the Indus Civilization: A Reassessment" in "Man and Environment" No. 17 (2), pp. 93 – 103, 1992. [Resource and trade.]
  5. Cleuziou, S. and M. Tosi, "Black Boats of Magan: Some thoughts on Bronze Age Water Transport in Oman and Beyond from the Impresses Bitumen Slabs of Ra’s al-Junayz" in "South Asian Archaeology 1993", edited by Asko Parpola and Petteri Koskikallio, pp. 745 - 761, Helsinki, 1994. [Resource and trade.]
  6. Ratnagar, S., "Harappan Trade in its ‘World’ context" in "Man and Environment", No. 19 (1–2), pp. 115 – 127, 1994. [International trade.]
  7. Possehl, G.L., "Seafaring Merchants of Meluhha" in "South Asian Archaeology 1995" edited by Raymond and Bridget Allchin, pp. 87 – 100, Oxford and IBH Publications, New Delhi, 1997. [International trade.]
  8. Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C., "The Oxus Civilization: the Bronze Age of Central Asia" in "Antiquity" No. 68 (Special Section), edited by C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, pp. 253 – 427, 1994.
  9. Possehl, G.L., "Meluhha" in "The Indian Ocean in Antiquity" edited by J. Reade, pp. 133 – 208, Kegan Paul, 1996.
  10. Hiebert, F.T. and C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, "Central Asia and the Indo-Iranian Borderlands" in "Iran" No. 30, pp. 1 – 15, 1992.

 

Crafts and Technology of Indus Civilization

  1. Bhan, K.K., M. Vidale and J.M. Kenoyer, "Harappan Technology: Theories and Methodological Issues" in "Man and Environment" No. 19 (1-2), pp. 141 – 157, 1994.
  2. Pracchia, S., M. Tosi and M. Vidale, "On the Type, Distribution and Extent of Craft industries at Mohenjo-Daro" in "South Asian Archaeology 1983", edited by J. Schotsmans and M. Taddei, pp. 207 – 247, 1985.
  3. Vidale, M., "Specialized Producers and Urban Elites: On the Role of Craft Industries in Mature Harappan Urban Contexts", in "Old Problems and New Perspectives in the Archaeology of South Asia" edited by J.M. Kenoyer, pp. 171 – 181, Wisconsin Archaeological Report 2, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1989.
  4. Miller, H.M.L., "Metal Processing at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro: information from non-metal Remains", in "South Asian Archaeology 1993", edited by Asko Parpola and Petteri Koskikallio, pp. 497 - 510, Helsinki, 1994.
  5. Mackay, E., "Bead Making in Ancient Sind" in "Journal of the American Oriental Society", No.57 (1), pp. 1 – 15, 1937.
  6. Blackman, M.J. and M. Vidale, "The Production and Distribution of Stoneware Bangles at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa monitored by Chemical Characterization Studies", in "South Asian Archaeology 1989", edited by C. Jarrige, pp. 37 – 44, Prehistory Press, Madison, Wisconsin, 1992.
  7. Barthelemy de Saizieu, B. and A Bouquillon, "Evolution of Glazed Material from the Chalcolithic to the Indus period based on the date of Mehrgarh and Nausharo", in "South Asian Archaeology 1995", edited by Raymond and Bridget Allchin, pp. 63 – 76, Oxford and IBH Publication, New Delhi, 1997.

 

Decline of Indus Civilization and Aryan Invasion?

  1. Shaffer, J.G., "The Indo-Aryan Invasions: Cultural myth and Archaeological Reality" in "The People of South Asia" edited by J.R. Lukas, Plenum Press, New York, 1984.
  2. Jarrige, J.F., "Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the second Millennium BC" in "South Asian Archaeology 1983", edited by J. Schotsmans and M. Taddei, pp. 35 – 68, Naples, 1985.
  3. Mughal, M.R., "The Decline of the Indus Civilization and the Late Harappan Period in the Indus Valley" in "Lahore Museum Bulletin", No. 3 (2), pp. 1 – 17, 1990.
  4. Mughal, M.R., "Jhukar and the Late Harappan Cultural Mosaic of the Greater Indus Valley" in "South Asian Archaeology 1989" edited by C. Jarrige, pp. 213 – 221, Prehistory Press, Madison, Wisconsin, 1992.
  5. Erdosy, G., "Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity: Theoretical Perspectives" in "The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity" edited by G. Erdosy, pp. 1 – 31, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & New York, 1995.
  6. Possehl, G.L., "The Transformation of the Indus Civilization" in "Journal of World Prehistory" No. 11 (4), pp. 425 – 472, 1999.
  7. Elst, Koenraad, "Update on the Aryan invasion debate", Aditya Prakashan, New Delhi, 1999.
  8. Rajaram, Navaratna Srinivasa, "The politics of history: Aryan invasion theory and the subversion of scholarship", Voice of India, New Delhi, 1995.
  9. Frawley, David, "The myth of the Aryan invasion of India", Voice of India, New Delhi, 1994.
  10. Knight, Alfred E., "India, from the Aryan invasion to the great Sepoy Mutiny", Swati Publications, New Delhi, 1988.