Islam, The Sufis, The Sants
A New Composition: The Rise of Indo-Muslim Culture

1. Overview

Traders


Mahmud of Ghazni, 11th century
Sack of Somnath
Alberuni's Kitab al Hindu


Mahmud of Ghur, 12th century
To Banaras, Nalanda

Delhi Sultinate, 13th to 16th centuries

Mughal Empire, 16th to 18th centuries

2. Contrasting Traditions
Hinduism as Polytheistic, Islam as Monotheistic?

Shahadah: There is no God but God, and Muhammad is God's messanger
Tawhid: The Oneness of God

Hinduism a iconic, Islam as iconoclastic?

Darshan: "Seeing" the Divine image
Dhikr: "Recollection" of the Divine name

History of little significance? Of Divine significance.
Divine play? Divine will?

Hindu linked to India, Islam as trans-cultural?

Hindu having no creed or heterodoxy; Islam having strong orthoprax tradition?

Shahadah
Prayer
Fasting in Ramadan
Pilgrimage to Mecca
Giving of Zakat charity

Hindu hierarchical, Islam egalitarian?

Hindu vegetarian, Islam non-vegetarian?

Hindu sense of ignorance, Islamic sense of disobedience?

3. Interpretation of Traditions

4. Sufis

Sufi shaykhs/shaikhs/pir
Tombs, Dargah
Sufi orders: Chishti, Naqshbandis, etc.

On Sufism, see Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam

5. Sants, Saints
Nirguna Bhaktas
Kabir (1440-1518)

Disciple of Ramananda? Or Shaykh Taqi?
Both Muslim and Hindu?
Neither Muslim nor Hindu?
Interiority

On Kabir, see Charlotte Vaudeville, Kabir, A Weaver Named Kabir