Nineteenth and Twentieth Century India


1. Colonial Settlements

a. Portuguese in Goa, 16th century; Panji; St. Francis Xavier
b. British in Madras (Chennai): Fort St. George, 16th century
c. British in Surat, Bombay (Mumbai)
d. British in Calcutta: Fort William

2. British East India Company & "Double Government"

a. Robert Clive, 1757 Plassey
b. Warren Hastings, 1772 Bengal
c. Lord Cornwallis, 1793
d. destruction of Indian agriculture: zamindars
e. annexation of kingdoms
(Maratha Confederacy, 1817; Sind 1843, Punjab 1849, Oudh 1856)
f. destruction of Indian industry
g. "mutiny" 1857

3. British Government of India: 1858

a. Viceroys: Canning to Mountbatten
b. Legislative Council of India.
c. 1885 Indian National Congress:
becomes primary vehicle of independence movement.
d. Series of "reforms": Morley-Minto (1911); Montagu-Chelmsford (1920); Government of India Act (1935); transfer of power (1947)

4. Anglicist-Orientalist debate

a. Development of studies in Sanskrit, Persian
b. Thomas Babington Macaulay (1835) "Minute on Education"

5. Reformers-Revivalists

a. Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833): Brahmo Samaj
b. Debendranath Tagore (1817-1905)
c. Keshub Chandra Sen (1838-1884)
d. Dayananda Sarasvati (1824-1883): Arya Samaj
e. Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902): Ramakrishna Mission

6. Moderates-Extremists

a. B.G. Tilak in Maharashtra; Aurobindo, B.C. Pal and B.C. Chatterjee in Bengal; Lala Lajpat Rai in Punjab all become, in various ways, "extremists"
b. Dadabhai Naoroji, M.G. Ranade, R.C.Gokhale cast as "moderates."