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Legend: Literary Historical Commemorative

Years Image Event Description Keywords
1524   Verrazano explores NE coast   exploration, settlement, Indians
1603   Martin Pring explores NE coast   exploration, settlement, Indians
1607   Popham Colony planted in Maine   settlement, Maine, archaeology
1608   Separatists go to Holland   pilgrims, Plymouth, settlement
1614   John Smith maps New England   exploration, map, Indians
1614   Dutch explore the Connecticut River   exploration, settlement, Connecticut
1615   seasonal fishing settlements in NH and Maine exact date not known fish, New Hampshire, Maine, settlement
1616   An epidemic of uncertain cause devastates southern New England.   Indians, epidemic
1620   English Separatists found Plymouth   Plymouth
1621   English and Wampanoag join in a harvest festival.    
1622   Mourt's Relation published in London   pilgrims, Bradford, Plymouth
1623   Permanent English settlements in New Hampshire   settlement, colony
1624   Pemaquid (Maine) established This is a conjectural date since the exact time is unknown. This was one of several fishing or fur-trading operations established in the 1620s in northern new England. settlement, colony, Maine
1628   Maypole at Mount Wollaston (Mass) Miles Standish commanded an expedition against Thomas Morton's fur-trading post. Plymouth officials feared Morton's men were trading guns with Indians. Pilgrims, Hawthorne, Standish, maypole, Indian"
1629   Plymouth colonists estabish a trading post at Cushnoc on the Kennebec River in Maine. Other traders were active nearer the coast. Plymouth, Indians, settlement
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1630   Massachusetts Bay Colony Although other colonies preceded it, the Bay Colony soon dominated the region because of effective organization and massive migration. colony, settlement, Puritans
1633   Small pox epidemic further decimates coastal Indian groups. A succession of epidemics reduced the Massachusetts by as much as 90%. Other groups were totally wiped out. In contrast, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island were lightly affected. Indians, epidemic, Rhode Island
1634   Massachusetts immigrants settle Wethersfield and Windsor, Connecticut   Connecticut, colony, settlement
1634   John Endecott defaces King's colors Radical Puritan John Endecott of Salem believed that the image of the cross was idolatrous. A website for the Popham Colony has a representation of such a flag. Endicott, Endecott, flag, Hawthorne, Puritans
1635   Roger Williams founds Providence, RI Banished from the Bay Colony for his religious beliefs, Williams and his followers found refuge among the Narragansetts. colony, settlement, Indians, Rhode Island
1636   Harvard College founded    
1636   Thomas Hooker leads settlement at Hartford.   colony, settlement, Puritans
1637   Anne Hutchinson banished, settles Portsmouth, RI Among her supporters was Mary Dyer, a future religious martyr. Rhode Island, Puritans, Hutchinson, Antinomian
1637   Pequot War   Indians
1637   Thomas Morton, "New English Canaan"   maypole, pilgrims, Endicott, Hawthorne"
1638   New Haven founded   colony, settlement, Connecticut, Puritan
1642   English Civil War begins    
1646   Massachusetts begins to establish "praying towns"   Indian
1647   Alice Young hung in Hartford May be the first NE execution for witchchraft witch, Hartford
1648   Massachusetts executes Margaret Jones This is the first known Massachusetts execution for witchcraft. John Winthrop described her "malignant touch." witch
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1649   Charles I executed    
1650   Anne Bradstreet, "The Tenth Muse"    
1654   Harvard establishes Indian College   Indian, Harvard
1656   Ann Hibbens executed. Hibbens was of somewhat higher status than witches executed earlier. There appears to have been a hiatus in executions for a few years after her death.  
1656   First Quaker missionaries arrive in New England Between 1656-1661, at least 40 Quakers preached in Massachusetts. Some came from England, others from Barbados or Rhode Island Quaker, Whittier
1657   Lawrance and Cassandra Southwick imprisoned for entertaining Quakers They were eventually released, then imprisoned again the next year, and finally banished in 1659 on pain of death. The court threatened to sell their children to Barbados. Quaker, Whittier
1659   Massachusetts executes Quakers   execution
1660   Charles II restored to throne    
1660   Mary Dyer executed. Dyer had been sentenced to death three years earlier but was reprieved on the condition she not return. Quaker
1660   Mashpee established as a Christian Indian town Richard Bourne was the first missionary and pastor. Indian, Mashpee
1660 - 1725   A succession of conflicts transforms indigenous/ colonial relations. A map from the 1704 Deerfield website shows the colonial Northeast, c, 1660-1725. Indian war
1661   George Bishop, "New England Judged" This was a Quaker response to John Norton's "New England Rent," an apology for anti-Quaker laws. Quaker
1661   English Quaker William Leddra hanged in Boston. In response English Quakers sought a mandamus from King Charles II. A Salem Quaker, Samuel Shattock, who was then in England, delivered it to Governor Endecott. Quaker, Whittier
1662   Connecticut receives royal charter   charter, Connecticut
1662   Beginning of Hartford witch outbreak. During 1662-63, accusations against 13 persons resulted in 4 executions. witch, Hartford
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1662   Deborah Wilson ran naked through the streets of Salem. This was one of several attempts at civil disobedience by Quakers who chose flamboyant efforts to witness against persecution. Like the others, Wilson as whipped at the cart tail. Quakers
1662   The Wampanoag sachem Wamsutta dies mysteriously. Wamsutta, also known as Alexander, was Massasoit's oldest son and Metacom (or Philip's) brother. Indian, Philip
1667   George Bishop, "New England Judged, II"   Quaker
1671   Elizabeth Knapp "possessed of the Devil" Samuel Willard, a minister at Groton, Massachusetts, wrote about Knapp's exorcism. witch
1671   Katherine Naylor, the wife of a Boston merchant, sues for divorce. Her story came to light in the early 1990s as a consequence of excavations associated with Boston's Big Dig.  
1675   King Philip's War Read a modernized version of Philip's account of Indian grievances originally contained in a narrative by the Rhode Island Quaker, John Easton Indians, Philip
1677   Surviving Indians confined to Praying Towns   Indian, Philip
1683   Mary Rowlandson's narrative The birth of the "captivity narrative" as a American genre Philip, women
1685   Simon Popmonit becomes minister at Mashpee The first native-born pastor died in 1720. The Mashpee congregation refused to accept Joseph Bourne until he learned to preach in Wampanoag. Mashpee, Indian
1686   Dominion of New England established   Charter Oak, Andros
1687   Governor Andros challenges Connecticut charter   charter oak, Connecticut, Dominion
1689   King William's War begins This colonial version of a European war pitted French and Abenaki forces against English settlers and their Indian allies. Indians
1689   Abenaki kill Richard Waldron in Dover, NH The attack on Waldon's garrison was in part retaliation for a double cross at the end of King Philip's War. Indian, Philip, NH
1692   Cotton Mather, "Wonders of the Invisible World"   witch
1692   Salem Witch Trials   Salem, witch
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1695   Thomas Maule denounces Puritan leaders   Quakers
1697   Samuel Sewall repents of role in Salem trials   witch
1700   Robert Calef, "More Wonders of the Invisible World" Calef's critique of the trials focused on the credulity and worldly ambition of Cotton Mather. witch
1701   Yale College founded   Connecticut
1702   Cotton Mather publishes "Magnalia Christi Americana" This immense history of New England includes biographical vignettes of early ministers and governors, but also stories of captivites and accounts of diabolical possession. history, Puritans
1702   John Hale publishes "A Modest Inquiry"   witch
1702   Queen Anne's War begins A second round in an ongoing conflict between New France and New England. Indians
1704   Deerfield Massacre A winter raid resulted in the deaths or captivities of three-fifths of the town's inhabitants. The attacking force included men from Odanak and Schaghiticoke, where many New England refugees had gathered after King Philip's War. Indians, French, frontier, captivity" Philip
1706   Benjamin Franklin born in Boston    
1711   Massachusetts begins compensating victims of Salem witch trials.   witch
1725   Lovewell's Defeat at Pigwacket A failed raid in central Maine provoked songs and sermons about the heroism of New England soldiers. Indians, Maine
1739   King George's War begins Another round in the intercolonial wars. Indians, New France
1739   George Whitfield's first tour    
1745   Pigwackets in exile in Massachusetts Caught between English and French forces, the Pigwackets spent King George's War as refugees in Massachusetts Indians
1755   Braddock's Defeat    
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1755   British deport French settlers of Acadia   Evangeline, Acadia, Longfellow
1760   Reuben Cognehew carries Mashpee petition to London   Indian, Mashpee
1763   Treaty of Paris ends 7 Year's War   revolution
1764   Thomas Hutchinson, "History of the Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay" An important early history by the later Loyalist governor. Dealt with witchhunting and with the banishment of his ancestor, Anne Hutchinson. witch, antinomianism, loyalist
1765   Stamp Act Riots   revolution
1766   Hundreds, including slaves and free blacks, begin holding religious meetings in Sarah Osborne's home in Newport, Rhode Island. Osborne called these my "resting, reaping times." In 1770, she is instrumental in getting Samuel Hopkins installed as pastor of a Newport church.  
1767   Townshend Acts   revolution
1768   spinning meetings begin   revolution
1768   Non-importation agreements begin   revolution
1768   British troops arrive in Boston   revolution
1769   Forefather's Day celebrated by Plymouth's Old Colony Club    
1769   Non-consumption agreements begin to appear   revolution
1770   Phillis Wheatley, "Elegy for George Whitefield" The British evangelist died at Newburyport, Mass. on September 30, 1770. slavery, religion
1770   Townshend Acts Repealed   revolution
1770   11yr old Christopher Seider killed   revolution
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1770 Copley paints Paul Revere Copley's painting and many examples of Revere's silver can be seen at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.  
1770   Boston Massacre John Adams defends the British soldiers. revolution
1770 Paul Revere engraves the events in King Street.   Boston Massacre, Attucks
1772   Paul Revere engraves a "portrait" of King Philip   Indian, Philip
1772   Committees of Correspondence formed   revolution
1773   Boston "Tea Party"   revolution
1773   Mary Rowlandson's narrative reprinted   women, Philip" Philip
1773   Phillis Wheatley, "Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral"  
Additional Information
slavery
1773   Massachusetts slaves begin petitioning for freedom   slavery, abolition
1774   First Continental Congress   revolution
1774   John Malcolm tarred and feathered An example of pre-revolutionary violence and a key episode in the biography of George Robert Twelves Hewes. revolution
1774   Intolerable Acts   revolution
1774   In December, Paul Revere rides to Portsmouth, New Hampshire   powder revolution
1775   Battles at Lexington and Concord   revolution
1775   George Washington takes command   revolution
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1775   In April, Paul Revere attempts to carry news to Concord    
1775   Battle of Bunker Hill   revolution
1776   Declaration of Independence   revolution
1776   Samuel Hopkins, A Dialogue Concerning the Slavery of the Africans An abolitionist argument ddressed to the continental congress. abolition, Stowe
1776   British evacuate Boston   revolution
1776   Abigail Adams urges John to "Remember the Ladies    
1777   Burgoyne Surrenders at Saratoga    
1777   Congress defines American flag    
1777   Battle of Saratoga    
1777   Battle of Bennington    
1780   Benedict Arnold turns traitor    
1781   Battle of Yorktown    
1781   Articles of Confederation ratified    
1781   British attack Fort Griswold and burn New London, Connecticut    
1782   Peace negotiations begin    
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1783   Congress ratifies Articles of Peace    
1783   Loyalists evacuate New York    
1783   Boston establishes annual July 4 oration After the revolution, Independence Day replaced Pope's Day and Boston Massacre orations in public memorials.  
1786   Shay's Rebellion   revolution
1787   Constitutional Convention    
1787   Northwest Ordinance    
1788   Constitution ratified    
1789   French revolution begins    
1790   New England has a million people   population
1791   Vermont joins the union as the 14th state    
1791   Massachusetts Historical Society founded    
1799   East India Marine Society established in Salem, Massachusetts    
1800   With 1,400,000 people N.E. contains 28 percent of the U.S. population    
1800   Population in Connecticut stagnates while Maine explodes   population distribution
1801   Reprint of French edition of Phillis Wheatley's poems Wheatley's "Poems on Various Subjects" was included in Joseph Lavalee's "The Negro Equalled by Few Europeans," published in translation in Philadelphia  
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1802   Reprint of Phillis Wheatley's poems published in NH    
1803   Louisiana Purchase    
1804   Lewis and Clark Expedition begins    
1805   Rock outcropping in Franconia Notch first noticed by road workers.   Old Man, profile
1806   Black Baptists build a meeting house on Beacon Hill in Boston The "African Meeting House," now on Boston's Black Heritage Trail, is considered the oldest surviving Black church building in America. abolition
1810   Congress commissions a census on manufactures Memories of revolutionary spinning meetings encourage domestic production. women's work
1812   War with England sometimes called the "second war for Independence" revolution
1812   U.S.S. Constitution ("Old Ironsides") fights British.   maritime
1813   Agricultural fairs called "Cattle Shows" begin displaying household manufactures By the 1820s, the annual shows also include "fancy work." women's work
1813   William Nell ships out of Charleston, S.C. as a steward   maritime, abolition
1814   Washington Irving, "Philip of Pokanoket" An early, sympthetic account of King Philip Indian, Philip
1814   Hartford Convention considers secession   Connecticut, Federalists, revolution
1815   Henry Sargent paints "The Landing of the Fathers"    
1815   The Affecting Narrative of Louisa Baker This was the first in a series of stories eventually gathered as "The Female Marine." maritime
1817   Pres. James Monroe consecrates Bunker Hill battle site   revolution, memory
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1818   Daniel Wadsworth commissions a portrait of the Charter Oak   charter oak, Connecticut
1818   Congress establishes pensions for indigent veterans.   Hewes, revolution
1818   John Trumbull's painting of the signing of the Declaration of Independence displayed at Faneuil Hall   July 4, revolution
1820   Daniel Webster speaks at Plymouth bicentennial    
1820   Missouri Compromise guarantees statehood for Maine    
1820   Cotton Mather's "Magnalia Christi Americana" reprinted   witch, Puritanism
1820   Witch of New England published This anonymous work was only the first of several literary treatments of the seventeenth-century witch hunts. Like others, it emphasized the dangers of delusion.  
1821   Essex Institute founded    
1822   Rhode Island Historical Society founded    
1822   Timothy Dwight, "Travels in New England and New York"    
1823   New Hampshire Historical Society founded    
1823   Calef's "More Wonders of the Invisible World" reprinted   witch
1824   Lydia Sigourney, "Sketches of Connecticut Forty Years Since"    
1824   Pilgrim Hall museum opened in Plymouth    
1824   A Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison published   Indian
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1824   Lydia Maria Child, "Hobomok: A Tale of Early Times" A distraught Puritan woman marries an Indian. Indians
1824   Lafayette feted in America   revolution
1824   Bunker Hill monument begun   revolution
1825   Connecticut Historical Society founded   Connecticut, museums
1825   John Winthrop's "History of New England" reprinted   Antinomianism, Puritanism, Hutchinson, Dyer
1825   Erie Canal completed   economy
1826   Lowell, Massachusetts incorporated   economy, women's work
1826   James Fenimore Cooper, "The Last of the Mohicans" The trope of the disappearing Indian was already well-established by the time Cooper wrote. Indian
1827   James Fenimore Cooper, "The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish" A little-known novel about King Philip's War Indian, Philip
1827   Catharine Sedgwick, "Hope Leslie, or Early Times in Massachusetts" Features a friendship between a Puritan woman and a Pequot woman. Indian
1827   Sarah Josepha Hale, "Northwood"   Thanksgiving
1828   Female textile workers strike at Dover, N.H. See documents on the course Web site related to Dover strikes. women's work
1828   Andrew Jackson elected president    
1829   William Apes publishes "A Son of the Forest"   Indians, Mashpee
1829   First performance of "Metamora"   Indian, Philip
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1829   Charles Goodrich, "A History of the United States of America" Like other writers of the early republic, Goodrich saw the Salem witch trials as a consequence of fanaticism and delusion.  
1829   David Walker, An Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World Published in Boston by a southern black, Walker's "Appeal" helped to spark the abolitionist movement. abolition, slavery
1830   New Hampshire legislature encourages sericulture In the 1820s and 1830s several states offered bounties. In most places the "silk craze" had collapsed by 1840. women's work
1830   Indian Removal Act This eventually led to the forcible removal of 20,000 Cherokees from Georgia to Oklahama along the infamous "Trail of Tears" Indian, Jackson
1830   Oliver Wendell Holmes' poem raises outcry over supposed abandonment of "Old Ironsides."   maritime
1830   Theodore Dwight, The Northern Traveller (guidbook) mentions "Old Man of the Mountains."   old man, profile
1830 - 1870   Domestic fiction dominates literary market Hawthorne both admired and denigrated these writers, referring to them "as damned, scribbling females.  
1830   Monument erected at Fort Griswold    
1831   Charles W. Upham, "Lectures on Witchcraft" An account by a Unitarian minister who used the Salem story to warn against the dangers of religious and political zeal. witch
1831   John Greenleaf Whitter, "Legends of New England" Based on earlier stories written for newspapers, Whittier dealt with witch beliefs as a form of folklore.  
1831   Maria Stewart begins public speeches condemning slavery. Stewart, a free black, may have been the first women in the U.S. to give public speeches against slavery. abolition
1831   Nathaniel Hawthorne, "My Kinsman, Major Molineux" This early story was re-published in 1852 revolution
1831   Mohegan Church built   Indians
1832   Garrison begins "The Liberator"   abolition
1832   Seth Luther, "An Address to the Working-Men of New England"   labor, women's work
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1833   Lydia Maria Child, "An Appeal for that Class of Americans Called Africans" Child, who had previously published fiction and a cookbook, The American Frugal housewife, became a prominent antislavery writer and activist. antislavery, abolition
1833   Indian Declaration of Independence Part of Mashpee Revolt led by "Blind Joe" Amos and William Apes Indian, Mashpee, Apes
1833   John Greenleaf Whittier joins the abolitionist cause. Whittier was a close friend of William Lloyd Garrison even before joining the fight against slavery. slavery, Whittier, abolition
1833   Oliver Wendell Holmes, "The Last Leaf" Describes antiquated survivor of revolution. revolution
1834   Whittier publishes "The Slave Ship"   slavery, abolition, maritime
1834   Textile strikes at Lowell, Massachusetts and Dover, N.H. In this and the 1836 strike at Lowell, workers compared themselves to slaves. women's work
1834   James Hawkes, A Retrospect of the Boston Tea-Party, with a Memoir of George R.T. hewes"   revolution
1834   Shoebinders of Lynn, Massachusetts form a society "for the protection and promotion of Female Industry" Its leaders helped to form the Female Anti-Slavery Society in 1837. women's work
1834   Burning of Ursuline convent in Charlestown   immigration, Catholicism
1835   George Robert Twelves Hewes feted in Providence and Boston Joseph G. Cole painted his portrait, called "The Centenarian" Independence Day, July 4, revolution
1835   Benjamin Bussey Thatcher, "Traits of the Tea Party; Being a Memoir of George R.T. Hewes"   revolution
1835   Rhode Island Historical Society collects materials from Indian graves. This is only one example of New England museums accessioning grave goods, bones, and hair from burial sites deliberately or accidentally disturbed. museums, bones, Indians
1835   Seaman's Aid Society establishes a "Mariner's Home" in Boston   maritime
1836   John Warner Barber , "Historical Collections of Connecticut"    
1836   William Apess. Eulogy on King Philip   Indian, Philip
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1836   Nathaniel Hawthorne, "The Maypole at Merrymount"   maypole, Hawthorne
1836   Providence ships lists show 30% African American seamen.   maritime
1836 Eliza Susan Quincy portrays procession at Harvard's 200th Anniversary   Harvard centennial
1836   Henry Wadsworth Longfellow begins teaching modern languages at Harvard. He lasted until 1854, though he complained early on, "Perhaps the worst thing in a college life is this having your mind constantly a playmate for boys,--constantly adapting to them, instead of stretching out and grappling with men's minds." Today Harvard's Longfellow Institute honors American multi-lingualism.  
1837   Nathaniel Hawthorne, "Twice-Told Tales"    
1837   Vermont abolitionists begin sheltering escaped slaves See an interesting collection of documents and a debate over Vermont's role in the "Underground Railroad" at The Vermont Historical Society  
1837   John Sibley publishes story of Washington Elm   revolution
1837   Sarah Grimke, "Letters on the Equality of the Sexes" With her sister, Angelina, Grimke traveled throughout New England, meeting with female wage workers as well as abolitionists. women's work
1837   For women, rural outwork is the dominant form of wage labor. A Massachusetts census shows that almost half of wage workers were braiding palm-leaf and straw for hats. women's work.
1837   Angeline and Sarah Grimke tour New England   abolition, women
1837   Nathaniel Hawthorne, "Endicott and the Red Cross"   flag, cross, Endicott
1837   Ralph Waldo Emerson, "The American Scholar" "Our day of dependence, our long apprenticeship to the learning of other lands, draws to a close."  
1837   Ralph Waldo Emerson's "Concord Hymn" sung at the dedication of the North Bridge Battle Monument. "Here once the embattled farmers stood/And fired the shot heard round the world." Revolution
1839   Amistad trial in New Haven   slavery abolition maritime
1839   Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, Algic Researches One of many ethnographic works published by the Indian agent and self-taught scientist, it contained a version of the myth of Hiawatha. Indians
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1840   Agitation for Ten-hour Day   labor
1841   Catharine Williams, "The Neutral French, or the Exiles of Nova Scotia"    
1841   Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, "The Skeleton in Armor"   bones, Indians
1841   Catharine Beecher, "A Treatise on Domestic Economy"   women's work
1841   Longfellow, "The Wreck of the Hesperus," in Ballads and Other Poems   maritime
1841   Amistad case argued before the Supreme Court   John Quincy Adams slavery
1842   Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Poems on Slavery   slavery, abolition
1842   Dorr Rebellion in Rhode Island    
1842 Eleanor Field gives the Rhode Island Historical Society a basket purportedly made during King Philip's War.    
1842   With the encouragement of his friend Charles Sumner, Longfellow publishes "Poems on Slavery    
1842   Wadsworth Atheneum opens in Hartford Considered the nation's first public art museum. Connecticut, museum
1845   New England Historic Genealogical Society Founded    
1845   Frederick Douglas publishes his narrative. He became a powerful voice in both the anti-slavery and women's rights movements. slavery, abolition
1845   Beginning of Irish famine   immigration
1846   Mexican War begins    
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1846   Hawthorne, "Roger Malvyn's Burial" in Mosses From An Old Manse Hawthorne's story built on an already existing romance about Lovewell's Defeat at Pigwacket in 1725. Lovewell, Maine, bones
1847   Sarah Hale, ed. of Godey's begins Thanksgiving campaign For samples of Hale's Thanksgiving editorials, go to "The Godey's Lady's Book" link at the University of Vermont.  
1847   John Greenleaf Whittier, "Supernaturalism of New England"   witch, folklore
1847   Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, "Evangeline"    
1847   First edition of Frederick Douglass's North Star    
1848   William Oakes, Scenery of the White Mountains Oakes said that from one angle the profile resembled a "toothless old woman in a mob cap." From the best angle, however, it showed a man with character "fixed and firm." old man, profile
1848   Elizabeth Ellet. Women of the American Revolution    
1848   Thompkins Matteson's "Examination of a Witch" exhibited in New York   witch, painting
1848   James Russell Lowell, "The Courtin'"    
1848   Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention    
1849   California Gold Rush   economy
1850   At 2,729,000, N.E. composes less than 12 percent of the U.S. population    
1850   Nathaniel Hawthorne, "The Scarlet Letter"    
1850   Fugitive Slave Act   slavery
1850   45 out of 100 New Englanders live in Maine, NH, or Vermont   population distribution
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1850   10,000 men employed in whaling on shore or at sea   maritime
1850   Nathaniel Hawthorne, "The Great Stone Face"   old man, profile" mountain
1851   Herman Melville, "Moby Dick"   maritime
1851   Harriet Beecher Stowe, "Uncle Tom's Cabin"   slavery, abolition
1851   Horace Bushnell speaks at Litchfield County Centennial   Litchfield, Connecticut, homespun
1851   J.W. DeForest, "History of the Indians of Connecticut"    
1851   Nathaniel Hawthorne, "The House of the Seven Gables"   witch Salem
1853   Samuel Drake's edition of "Magnalia Christi Americana"    
1853   Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes a campaign biography for his former Bowdoin classmate Franklin Pierce and is rewarded with a consulship in England.    
1854   Lucy Larcom, "Hannah Binding Shoes"   women's work, maritime
1854   Anthony Burns arrested under the Fugitive Slave Act   slavery
1855   Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, "The Song of Hiawatha"    
1855   Herman Melville, "Tartarus of Maids" In the 1850s, Melville published many short stories and sketches in Harper's and Putnam's magazines. women's work
1855   William C. Nell, "Colored Patriots of the American Revolution" Among other stories, Nell featured the role of Crispus Attucks in the "Boston Massacre. Attucks, Boston Massacre
1856   Charter Oak toppled in a wind storm The romance of the Charter Oak persists even today. charter oak, Connecticut
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1856   Benjamin Willey, Incidents in White Mountain History Earliest published version of a comment later attributed to Daniel Webster. ""Men put out signs representing their different trades; jewellers hang out a monster watch; shoemakers, a huge boot; and, up in Franconia, God Almighty has hung out a sign that in New England he makes men." profile, old man
1856   Senator Charles Sumner caned after delivering his speech "Crime Against Kansas   Longfellow Civil War
1857   John Greenleaf Whittier, "Skipper Ireson's Ride,"   maritime
1857   Dred Scott Decision   slavery, abolition
1858   Winslow Homer illustrates rural New England life. . See "Husking Corn," Harper's Weekly, November 13, 1858, in "Selected Slides: Homer" women's work, homespun
1858   Black seamen parade in Boston and Providence to celebrate West Indian independence.   maritime
1858   Longfellow, "The Courtship of Miles Standish" Longfellow's poem rivaled Thanksgiving in American memory and helped perpetuate the mystique of the spinning wheel. See The Age of Homespun, page 27. poetry, pilgrims" plymouth
1858   Crispus Attucks Day celebrated at African Meeting House   revolution, Boston Massacre
1859   Gloucester fleets net almost 30 million pounds of fish. Fewer than 3 out of 10 fishermen own their own craft. maritime
1859   Harriet Wilson, "Our Nig, or Sketches from the LIfe of a Free Black"    
1859   Harriet Beecher Stowe, The Minister's Wooing Stowe's hero was a Newport, Rhode Island minister named Samuel Hopkins. Stowe, abolition, slavery
1859   Rockport women attack rumsellers.   maritime
1860   Shoe workers strike in Lynn, Massachusetts and neighboring towns. Female strikers invoke the memory of the revolutionary heroine Molly Stark. women's work
1860   Matthew Brady photographs Edwin Forrest as "Metamora"   Indian, Philip
1861   Longfellow publishes "Paul Revere's Ride" in Atlantic Monthly   revolution
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1861   Oliver Wendell Holmes, "Under the Washington Elm"   revolution
1861   William Cooper Nell becomes clerk in U.S. Postal Service He was the first black to receive a federal post. race
1861   Civil War economy boosts Massachusetts manufacturing   economy
1861   Civil War begins Lincoln was inaugurated in March; confederates fired on Fort Sumter in April. Civil War
1862   Hawthorne published "Chiefly About War Matters" in The Atlantic Monthly The Liberator denounces the essay, noting that the anonymous author was reported to be Nathaniel Hawthorne. Civil War
1863   Longfellow , "Tales of a Wayside Inn"    
1863   Lincoln declares Thanksgiving a national holiday    
1863 Lincoln delivers Gettysburg Address   Civil War
1863   Emancipation Proclamation frees slaves in rebellious states In a response to an editorial in the New york Tribune, Lincoln had earlier insisted that he would free the slaves only to save the Union. Harriet Beecher Stowe responded in another publication that he should save the Union only to free the slaves. slavery
1864   U.S. Sanitary Commission sponsors "Colonial Kitchens"    
1864   Massachusetts Historical Society published Phillis Wheatley letters    
1865   Robert E. Lee surrenders   Civil War
1865   13th Amendment outlaws slavery    
1865   Klu Klux Klan founded    
1865   Abraham Lincoln assassinated    
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1866   John Greenleaf Whittier, "Snowbound"   poetry
1866   Peabody Museum founded at Harvard    
1867   Edmonia Lewis sells busts of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw    
1868   Winslow Homer illustrates life in Lowell Mills See "Morning Bell" and "Bell Time" in Selected Slides: Homer. Also see HarpWeek (Hollis e-resources) issues of July 25, 1868 (p. 472) and December 23, 1873 (p. 1116). women's work
1868   Deerfield first exhibits door from "Indian House"   Deerfield massacre, museum
1869   Massachusetts enfranchises Indians This ended the "protected" status that originated in the colonial period. Communities like Mashpee were divided Indian, franchise
1869   Harriet Beecher Stowe, "Old-Town Folks"    
1869   American Museum of Natural History founded in New York    
1869   Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association founded in Deerfield, Massachusetts   museum
1870   Boston Museum of Fine Arts founded    
1870   Metropolitan Museum of Art founded in New York    
1870   First transcontinental train leaves Boston on a 39-day journey across the United States   economy
1870   Winslow Homer engraving, "The Dinner Horn"    
1870   French-Canadian workers fill Northern N.E. mill towns   labor, economy, immigration
1870   Most female wage workers are employed in factories or as household servants. In Boston, 8 of 10 household servants are foreign born. In textile mills, most are immigrants or the children of immigrants. women's work, population, immigration
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1870   The whaling industry attracts thousands of immigrants from the Azores   immigration
1871   P.T. Barnum founds "The Greatest Show on Earth"    
1871   New England whaling ships crushed in ice of coast of Alaska   maritime
1873   Anne Whitney wins competition to create a sculpture of Samuel Adams for the United States Capitol. Later the City of Boston installed a bronze version at Faneuil Hall even though in 1874 a Boston commission rejected her sculpture of Charles Sumner because she was a woman.
statue
1875   Custer defeated at the Battle of Little Bighorn   Indians
1876   Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia    
1877   Hayes-Tilden Election resolved A compromise that guaranteed Rutherford Hayes' election also ended reconstruction in the south.  
1878   Old Ironsides takes last Atlantic voyage. After 1897 it is on exhibit in Boston. maritime
1879   The Boston Antiquarian Club rescues the Old State House See the Old State House time-line on the Bostonian Society Web site revolution
1879   Children give Longfellow a chair from the "spreading chestnut"   trees
1880   New England fisheries decline   economy, maritime
1880   John Greenleaf Whittier writes poems about Quaker persecution.   Quaker
1880   Memorial Hall dedicated in Deerfield A battered door from the so-called "Indian house" was a prominent feature. Deerfield, museum, Indian
1881   Nantucket's Coffin House restored   maritime, museum, summer
1881   Controversy over John G. Whittier's "The King's Missive" In letters to the Boston Daily Advertiser, Whittier and historian George Ellis argued over the imprisonment of Quakers in 17th century Boston. Quaker, Whittier, poetry
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1881   Winslow Homer seeks the "old ways" in an English fishing village.   maritime
1885   After moving to Prout's Neck, Maine, Winslow Homer turned to the drama of seafaring.   maritime
1885   Boston proposes a statue of Paul Revere Although Cyrus Dallin completed several models, the city failed to raise the money to complete the statue. revolution
1886   Police kill strikers at Haymarket in Chicago A Chicago Historical Society website lays out the evidence. labor
1887   Ellen Rounds repairs the "Damm Garrison" In 1915, she donated it to Dover, New Hampshire's new "Woodman Institute." Indian wars, door, museum
1887   Mass. Historical Society protests Boston Massacre monument   revolution
1887   Edward Bellamy, "Looking Backward"    
1888   Crispus Attucks Monument dedicated   revolution
1888   Whittier supports women's suffrage.   suffrage, Quaker
1889   Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association presents a historical pageant The historical vignettes included Anne Hutchinson's banishment, the Salem witch trials, and the courtship of Priscilla Alden, among other events. witch, antinomian, Hutchinson, Alden, suffrage
1890   Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) Founded    
1890   Fall River surpasses Lowell as largest producer of printed textiles   labor, economy
1890   Alice Baker returns to Deerfield to restore her ancestral home, Frary House.   summer
1891   Bennington Battle Monument erected Harper's Weekly, August 22, 1891: "It is 308 feet high, being the highest battle monument in this country, and nearly 100 feet higher thant he famous one on Bunker Hill.  
1893   World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago   centennial
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1893   Alice Morse Earle, "Customs and Fashions of Old New England"    
1894   Immigration Restriction League Founded at Harvard   labor, population
1895   Eliza Philbrick creates a "Colonial Gown" for a DAR party in Boston   reproduction
1896   Blue and White Society formed in Deerfield   reproduction
1896   Supreme Court accepts doctrine of "separate but equal" in Plessy v. Ferguson    
1897   New England Historic Genealogical Society Admits Women    
1897   Boston Society of Arts and Crafts Founded    
1898   Emily Tyson begins refurbishing Hamilton House in Maine Now owned by SPNEA, Hamilton House is representative of the fascination of wealthy families with decaying colonial properties. colonial revival
1898   Emily Tyson purchases the 1785 Hamilton House, the setting for Sarah Orne Jewett's "The Tory Lover."   summer
1900   Old Gaol opened in York, Maine   museum
1900   New England's 5.5 million people make up 7 percent of the U.S. population    
1900   Plymouth Blanket Society formed to make "rose blankets"    
1900   75 of 100 New Englanders live in Mass, Conn, or RI   population distribution
1901   Maine Historical Society opens Wadsworth-Longfellow House   museum
1901   President William McKinley assassinated    
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1902   Edith Wharton designs "The Mount" in Lenox, Massachusetts   summer
1902   William Dean Howells purchases a summer home on Kittery Point, Maine   summer
1903   Elizabeth C. B. Buel , "The Tale of the Spinning Wheel"    
1903   New Bedford Whaling Museum founded   maritime
1904   Wallace Nutting launches a career as a historical entrepreneur Wallace Nutting (1861-1941) attempted to record 'that old life in America, which is rapidly passing away.'  
1904   Henry James visits the supposed House of the Seven Gables. James wrote, "Hawthorne's ladder at Salem, in fine, has now quite gone, and we but tread the air if we attempt to set our critical feet on its steps and its rounds.  
1905 Paul Revere House saved from demolition The house, which was in an immigrant neighborhood, was reinvented as an early colonial dwelling. It is still open to the public.
Additional Information
museum
1907   Period rooms opened in Essex Institute   museum
1908   House of Seven Gables Settlement Association founded   witch, Salem, museum, immigration
1909   NAACP formed    
1910   John F. Fitzgerald mayor of Boston    
1910   Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) founded    
1912   Robert Frost, "North of Boston"    
1912   Strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts For photos and original documents provided by the SUNY-Binghamtom, "Women and Social Movements" Web site see, "The 1912 Lawrence Strike: How Did Immigrant Workers Struggle to Achieve an American Standard of Living?" labor, economy
1912   Workers at Lowell live in ethnic communities   immigration, labor
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1915   Frank G. Speck, "Decorative Art of the Indian Tribes of Connecticut"    
1915   Statue of Anne Hutchinson erected on Beacon Hill    
1920   19th Amendment gives women the vote    
1922   Antiques Magazine launched    
1924   American Indians granted citizenship and the right to vote    
1924   Ku Klux Klan has 50,000 members in Maine    
1924   Congress passes restrictive immigration laws   population
1924   First of New England textile mills moves south   labor, economy
1925   Vermont launches a Eugenics Survey   population, immigration
1926   John D. Rockefeller funds Colonial Williamburg in Virginia   museum
1927   Nicola Sacco and Bartholomeo Vanzetti executed   labor
1928   A New York surgeon founds the Abbe Museum on Mount Desert Island, Maine While summering in Bar Harbor, Dr. Abbe was fascinated by the ancient Native American tools found in nearby shell heaps. As he began collecting these artifacts, he realized the need for safe permanent storage.  
1929   Henry Ford funds Greenfield Village in Dearborn, Michigan   museum
1930   Nantucket Whaling Museum opened   maritime
1930   Mystic Seaport maritime museum begins operation    
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1930   Old Man of the Mountain promoted as a tourist attraction. In the late 1920s the State of New Hampshire began efforts to stabilize the crumbling formation. profile
1931   Grant Wood paints :The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere    
1931   Gladys Tantaquidgeon (1899-2005) founds the Tantaguidgeon Museum at Mohegan.   Mohegan, Indians
1931   Polish Legion of American Veterans chartered. Invoking the memory of Polish officers who fought in the American revolution, they eventually estabished units in New England. immigrant
1935   Yankee magazine founded    
1935   Wells Historical Museum (precurser to Old Sturbridge Village) open Read Jack Larkin and Mark Ashton, "Celebrating 50 Years of History" on the museum Web site.  
1935   Harold Tantaquidge reconstructs a Mohegan village   museum
1940   Civil leaders of Portuguese descent gather before a mural of the Pilgrim fathers.   immigration
1940   World war II fuels new industries in New England   economy
1942   Farmer's Museum in Cooperstown, New York established    
1942   Touro Synagogue designated a National Historic Site . . . the Georgian influenced building is situated on an angle within the property allowing worshippers standing in prayer before the Holy Ark to face east toward Jerusalem.  
1947   Old Sturbridge Village created   museum
1947   Plimoth Plantation founded   museum
1947   Shelburne Museum established    
1950   New England has over 9 million people, 6 percent of the nation's population   population
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1952   Historic Deerfield founded   museum
1953   Arthur Miller, "The Crucible" See Web links for Arthur Miller, "Why I wrote 'The Crucible': An artist's answer to politics." and for a Massachusetts curriculum project that connects Miller's play to Salem.
Additional Information
witch, Salem
1954   Brown v. Board of Education overturns "separate but equal"    
1955   Montgomery Alabama Bus Boycott    
1958   Strawbery Banke Museum opens in Portsmouth, NH In 1957 Dorothy M. Vaughan, Portsmouth librarian, was invited to address the local Rotary Club. As she later recalled, 'I decided to lay it right on the line, and tell them what Portsmouth was throwing away each time a house was torn down or a piece of furniture was sold out of town.' Almost before she had finished, a committee was created to see what could be done to save Portsmouth's heritage. The result was a radical new combination of urban renewal and historic preservation. The Puddle Dock neighborhood was to be saved as a historic museum.  
1959   Statue of Mary Dyer erected on Beacon Hill    
1960   Student sit-ins in the south    
1963   John F. Kennedy assassinated    
1964   Civil Rights Act targets race and sex    
1968   Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated    
1972   Harvard dedicates the so-called "Bradstreet Gate" between the Science Center and the Yard. The Bradstreet Gate was controversial because it appeared to by-pass the history of Radcliffe. The passage from Bradstreet's writing engraved on the gate was taken out of context. In the original it described her dismay at the raw condition of the settlement in Boston when she first arrived. Perhaps the first female freshmen in the Yard had similiar anxieties.
Additional Information
 
1974   Judge Garrity orders school busing in Boston    
1987   Archaeologists begin excavating historic sites threatened by Boston's Big Dig. Some of the artifacts recovered, including "North America's Oldest Bowling Ball" are on exhibit at the Commonwealth Museum. An interactive website shows the location of the Big Dig in relation to Boston geography as it changed over time.
Additional InformationAdditional Information
 
1990   Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act   Indian, bones
1992   The Last of the Mohicans filmed   Indian
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1996   The Crucible filmed   witch, Salem
1997   "National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom program" established by the National Park Service.    
1997   Irish Hunger Monument erected in Cambridge   immigration
1998   Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center Opens   Indian
2000   N. E.'s 12 million people compose less than 5 percent of the U.S. population   population
2001   Peabody Museum at Harvard continues to repatriate human remains Check the Harvard website for additional stories on NAGPRA bones Indians
2001   Boston Massacre Memorial included on a new Irish Heritage Trail. What was the justification for doing this?
Additional Information
immigration
2002   Church at Mohegan restored and museum installed.   Indians
2003   Old Man of the Mountains collapses   profile
2003   Boston Women's Memorial features Phillis Wheatley, Abigail Adams, and Lucy Stone   statue
2004   Memorial Hall Museum launches new website on "The Many Stories of 1704    
2006   Wampanoags receive preliminary recognition by Federal Government.   Mashpee

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