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Legend: Literary Historical Commemorative

Years Image Event Description Keywords
1524   Verrazano explores NE coast   exploration, settlement, Indians
1603   Martin Pring explores NE coast   exploration, settlement, Indians
1607   Popham Colony planted in Maine   settlement, Maine, archaeology
1608   Separatists go to Holland   pilgrims, Plymouth, settlement
1614   John Smith maps New England   exploration, map, Indians
1614   Dutch explore the Connecticut River   exploration, settlement, Connecticut
1615   seasonal fishing settlements in NH and Maine exact date not known fish, New Hampshire, Maine, settlement
1616   An epidemic of uncertain cause devastates southern New England.   Indians, epidemic
1620   English Separatists found Plymouth   Plymouth
1621   English and Wampanoag join in a harvest festival.    
1623   Permanent English settlements in New Hampshire   settlement, colony
1624   Pemaquid (Maine) established This is a conjectural date since the exact time is unknown. This was one of several fishing or fur-trading operations established in the 1620s in northern new England. settlement, colony, Maine
1628   Maypole at Mount Wollaston (Mass) Miles Standish commanded an expedition against Thomas Morton's fur-trading post. Plymouth officials feared Morton's men were trading guns with Indians. Pilgrims, Hawthorne, Standish, maypole, Indian"
1629   Plymouth colonists estabish a trading post at Cushnoc on the Kennebec River in Maine. Other traders were active nearer the coast. Plymouth, Indians, settlement
1630   Massachusetts Bay Colony Although other colonies preceded it, the Bay Colony soon dominated the region because of effective organization and massive migration. colony, settlement, Puritans
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1633   Small pox epidemic further decimates coastal Indian groups. A succession of epidemics reduced the Massachusetts by as much as 90%. Other groups were totally wiped out. In contrast, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island were lightly affected. Indians, epidemic, Rhode Island
1634   Massachusetts immigrants settle Wethersfield and Windsor, Connecticut   Connecticut, colony, settlement
1634   John Endecott defaces King's colors Radical Puritan John Endecott of Salem believed that the image of the cross was idolatrous. A website for the Popham Colony has a representation of such a flag. Endicott, Endecott, flag, Hawthorne, Puritans
1635   Roger Williams founds Providence, RI Banished from the Bay Colony for his religious beliefs, Williams and his followers found refuge among the Narragansetts. colony, settlement, Indians, Rhode Island
1636   Harvard College founded    
1636   Thomas Hooker leads settlement at Hartford.   colony, settlement, Puritans
1637   Anne Hutchinson banished, settles Portsmouth, RI Among her supporters was Mary Dyer, a future religious martyr. Rhode Island, Puritans, Hutchinson, Antinomian
1637   Pequot War   Indians
1638   New Haven founded   colony, settlement, Connecticut, Puritan
1642   English Civil War begins    
1646   Massachusetts begins to establish "praying towns"   Indian
1647   Alice Young hung in Hartford May be the first NE execution for witchchraft witch, Hartford
1648   Massachusetts executes Margaret Jones This is the first known Massachusetts execution for witchcraft. John Winthrop described her "malignant touch." witch
1649   Charles I executed    
1654   Harvard establishes Indian College   Indian, Harvard
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1656   Ann Hibbens executed. Hibbens was of somewhat higher status than witches executed earlier. There appears to have been a hiatus in executions for a few years after her death.  
1656   First Quaker missionaries arrive in New England Between 1656-1661, at least 40 Quakers preached in Massachusetts. Some came from England, others from Barbados or Rhode Island Quaker, Whittier
1657   Lawrance and Cassandra Southwick imprisoned for entertaining Quakers They were eventually released, then imprisoned again the next year, and finally banished in 1659 on pain of death. The court threatened to sell their children to Barbados. Quaker, Whittier
1659   Massachusetts executes Quakers   execution
1660   Charles II restored to throne    
1660   Mary Dyer executed. Dyer had been sentenced to death three years earlier but was reprieved on the condition she not return. Quaker
1660   Mashpee established as a Christian Indian town Richard Bourne was the first missionary and pastor. Indian, Mashpee
1660 - 1725   A succession of conflicts transforms indigenous/ colonial relations. A map from the 1704 Deerfield website shows the colonial Northeast, c, 1660-1725. Indian war
1661   English Quaker William Leddra hanged in Boston. In response English Quakers sought a mandamus from King Charles II. A Salem Quaker, Samuel Shattock, who was then in England, delivered it to Governor Endecott. Quaker, Whittier
1662   Connecticut receives royal charter   charter, Connecticut
1662   Beginning of Hartford witch outbreak. During 1662-63, accusations against 13 persons resulted in 4 executions. witch, Hartford
1662   Deborah Wilson ran naked through the streets of Salem. This was one of several attempts at civil disobedience by Quakers who chose flamboyant efforts to witness against persecution. Like the others, Wilson as whipped at the cart tail. Quakers
1662   The Wampanoag sachem Wamsutta dies mysteriously. Wamsutta, also known as Alexander, was Massasoit's oldest son and Metacom (or Philip's) brother. Indian, Philip
1671   Elizabeth Knapp "possessed of the Devil" Samuel Willard, a minister at Groton, Massachusetts, wrote about Knapp's exorcism. witch
1671   Katherine Naylor, the wife of a Boston merchant, sues for divorce. Her story came to light in the early 1990s as a consequence of excavations associated with Boston's Big Dig.  
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1675   King Philip's War Read a modernized version of Philip's account of Indian grievances originally contained in a narrative by the Rhode Island Quaker, John Easton Indians, Philip
1677   Surviving Indians confined to Praying Towns   Indian, Philip
1685   Simon Popmonit becomes minister at Mashpee The first native-born pastor died in 1720. The Mashpee congregation refused to accept Joseph Bourne until he learned to preach in Wampanoag. Mashpee, Indian
1686   Dominion of New England established   Charter Oak, Andros
1687   Governor Andros challenges Connecticut charter   charter oak, Connecticut, Dominion
1689   King William's War begins This colonial version of a European war pitted French and Abenaki forces against English settlers and their Indian allies. Indians
1689   Abenaki kill Richard Waldron in Dover, NH The attack on Waldon's garrison was in part retaliation for a double cross at the end of King Philip's War. Indian, Philip, NH
1692   Salem Witch Trials   Salem, witch
1697   Samuel Sewall repents of role in Salem trials   witch
1701   Yale College founded   Connecticut
1702   Queen Anne's War begins A second round in an ongoing conflict between New France and New England. Indians
1704   Deerfield Massacre A winter raid resulted in the deaths or captivities of three-fifths of the town's inhabitants. The attacking force included men from Odanak and Schaghiticoke, where many New England refugees had gathered after King Philip's War. Indians, French, frontier, captivity" Philip
1706   Benjamin Franklin born in Boston    
1711   Massachusetts begins compensating victims of Salem witch trials.   witch
1725   Lovewell's Defeat at Pigwacket A failed raid in central Maine provoked songs and sermons about the heroism of New England soldiers. Indians, Maine
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1739   King George's War begins Another round in the intercolonial wars. Indians, New France
1739   George Whitfield's first tour    
1745   Pigwackets in exile in Massachusetts Caught between English and French forces, the Pigwackets spent King George's War as refugees in Massachusetts Indians
1755   Braddock's Defeat    
1755   British deport French settlers of Acadia   Evangeline, Acadia, Longfellow
1760   Reuben Cognehew carries Mashpee petition to London   Indian, Mashpee
1763   Treaty of Paris ends 7 Year's War   revolution
1765   Stamp Act Riots   revolution
1766   Hundreds, including slaves and free blacks, begin holding religious meetings in Sarah Osborne's home in Newport, Rhode Island. Osborne called these my "resting, reaping times." In 1770, she is instrumental in getting Samuel Hopkins installed as pastor of a Newport church.  
1767   Townshend Acts   revolution
1768   spinning meetings begin   revolution
1768   Non-importation agreements begin   revolution
1768   British troops arrive in Boston   revolution
1769   Non-consumption agreements begin to appear   revolution
1770   Townshend Acts Repealed   revolution
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1770   11yr old Christopher Seider killed   revolution
1770 Copley paints Paul Revere Copley's painting and many examples of Revere's silver can be seen at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.  
1770   Boston Massacre John Adams defends the British soldiers. revolution
1772   Committees of Correspondence formed   revolution
1773   Boston "Tea Party"   revolution
1773   Massachusetts slaves begin petitioning for freedom   slavery, abolition
1774   First Continental Congress   revolution
1774   John Malcolm tarred and feathered An example of pre-revolutionary violence and a key episode in the biography of George Robert Twelves Hewes. revolution
1774   Intolerable Acts   revolution
1774   In December, Paul Revere rides to Portsmouth, New Hampshire   powder revolution
1775   Battles at Lexington and Concord   revolution
1775   George Washington takes command   revolution
1775   In April, Paul Revere attempts to carry news to Concord    
1775   Battle of Bunker Hill   revolution
1776   Declaration of Independence   revolution
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1776   British evacuate Boston   revolution
1776   Abigail Adams urges John to "Remember the Ladies    
1777   Burgoyne Surrenders at Saratoga    
1777   Congress defines American flag    
1777   Battle of Saratoga    
1777   Battle of Bennington    
1780   Benedict Arnold turns traitor    
1781   Battle of Yorktown    
1781   Articles of Confederation ratified    
1781   British attack Fort Griswold and burn New London, Connecticut    
1782   Peace negotiations begin    
1783   Congress ratifies Articles of Peace    
1783   Loyalists evacuate New York    
1786   Shay's Rebellion   revolution
1787   Constitutional Convention    
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1787   Northwest Ordinance    
1788   Constitution ratified    
1789   French revolution begins    
1790   New England has a million people   population
1791   Vermont joins the union as the 14th state    
1800   With 1,400,000 people N.E. contains 28 percent of the U.S. population    
1800   Population in Connecticut stagnates while Maine explodes   population distribution
1803   Louisiana Purchase    
1804   Lewis and Clark Expedition begins    
1805   Rock outcropping in Franconia Notch first noticed by road workers.   Old Man, profile
1806   Black Baptists build a meeting house on Beacon Hill in Boston The "African Meeting House," now on Boston's Black Heritage Trail, is considered the oldest surviving Black church building in America. abolition
1810   Congress commissions a census on manufactures Memories of revolutionary spinning meetings encourage domestic production. women's work
1812   War with England sometimes called the "second war for Independence" revolution
1812   U.S.S. Constitution ("Old Ironsides") fights British.   maritime
1813   Agricultural fairs called "Cattle Shows" begin displaying household manufactures By the 1820s, the annual shows also include "fancy work." women's work
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1813   William Nell ships out of Charleston, S.C. as a steward   maritime, abolition
1814   Hartford Convention considers secession   Connecticut, Federalists, revolution
1818   Congress establishes pensions for indigent veterans.   Hewes, revolution
1820   Missouri Compromise guarantees statehood for Maine    
1825   Erie Canal completed   economy
1826   Lowell, Massachusetts incorporated   economy, women's work
1828   Female textile workers strike at Dover, N.H. See documents on the course Web site related to Dover strikes. women's work
1828   Andrew Jackson elected president    
1830   New Hampshire legislature encourages sericulture In the 1820s and 1830s several states offered bounties. In most places the "silk craze" had collapsed by 1840. women's work
1830   Indian Removal Act This eventually led to the forcible removal of 20,000 Cherokees from Georgia to Oklahama along the infamous "Trail of Tears" Indian, Jackson
1830   Oliver Wendell Holmes' poem raises outcry over supposed abandonment of "Old Ironsides."   maritime
1830   Theodore Dwight, The Northern Traveller (guidbook) mentions "Old Man of the Mountains."   old man, profile
1831   Maria Stewart begins public speeches condemning slavery. Stewart, a free black, may have been the first women in the U.S. to give public speeches against slavery. abolition
1831   Mohegan Church built   Indians
1832   Garrison begins "The Liberator"   abolition
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1832   Seth Luther, "An Address to the Working-Men of New England"   labor, women's work
1833   Indian Declaration of Independence Part of Mashpee Revolt led by "Blind Joe" Amos and William Apes Indian, Mashpee, Apes
1833   John Greenleaf Whittier joins the abolitionist cause. Whittier was a close friend of William Lloyd Garrison even before joining the fight against slavery. slavery, Whittier, abolition
1834   Textile strikes at Lowell, Massachusetts and Dover, N.H. In this and the 1836 strike at Lowell, workers compared themselves to slaves. women's work
1834   Shoebinders of Lynn, Massachusetts form a society "for the protection and promotion of Female Industry" Its leaders helped to form the Female Anti-Slavery Society in 1837. women's work
1834   Burning of Ursuline convent in Charlestown   immigration, Catholicism
1835   Seaman's Aid Society establishes a "Mariner's Home" in Boston   maritime
1836   Providence ships lists show 30% African American seamen.   maritime
1836   Henry Wadsworth Longfellow begins teaching modern languages at Harvard. He lasted until 1854, though he complained early on, "Perhaps the worst thing in a college life is this having your mind constantly a playmate for boys,--constantly adapting to them, instead of stretching out and grappling with men's minds." Today Harvard's Longfellow Institute honors American multi-lingualism.  
1837   Vermont abolitionists begin sheltering escaped slaves See an interesting collection of documents and a debate over Vermont's role in the "Underground Railroad" at The Vermont Historical Society  
1837   For women, rural outwork is the dominant form of wage labor. A Massachusetts census shows that almost half of wage workers were braiding palm-leaf and straw for hats. women's work.
1837   Angeline and Sarah Grimke tour New England   abolition, women
1839   Amistad trial in New Haven   slavery abolition maritime
1840   Agitation for Ten-hour Day   labor
1841   Amistad case argued before the Supreme Court   John Quincy Adams slavery
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1842   Dorr Rebellion in Rhode Island    
1845   Beginning of Irish famine   immigration
1846   Mexican War begins    
1847   First edition of Frederick Douglass's North Star    
1848   Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention    
1849   California Gold Rush   economy
1850   At 2,729,000, N.E. composes less than 12 percent of the U.S. population    
1850   Fugitive Slave Act   slavery
1850   45 out of 100 New Englanders live in Maine, NH, or Vermont   population distribution
1850   10,000 men employed in whaling on shore or at sea   maritime
1853   Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes a campaign biography for his former Bowdoin classmate Franklin Pierce and is rewarded with a consulship in England.    
1854   Anthony Burns arrested under the Fugitive Slave Act   slavery
1856   Senator Charles Sumner caned after delivering his speech "Crime Against Kansas   Longfellow Civil War
1857   Dred Scott Decision   slavery, abolition
1858   Black seamen parade in Boston and Providence to celebrate West Indian independence.   maritime
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1859   Gloucester fleets net almost 30 million pounds of fish. Fewer than 3 out of 10 fishermen own their own craft. maritime
1859   Rockport women attack rumsellers.   maritime
1860   Shoe workers strike in Lynn, Massachusetts and neighboring towns. Female strikers invoke the memory of the revolutionary heroine Molly Stark. women's work
1861   William Cooper Nell becomes clerk in U.S. Postal Service He was the first black to receive a federal post. race
1861   Civil War economy boosts Massachusetts manufacturing   economy
1861   Civil War begins Lincoln was inaugurated in March; confederates fired on Fort Sumter in April. Civil War
1863   Lincoln declares Thanksgiving a national holiday    
1863 Lincoln delivers Gettysburg Address   Civil War
1863   Emancipation Proclamation frees slaves in rebellious states In a response to an editorial in the New york Tribune, Lincoln had earlier insisted that he would free the slaves only to save the Union. Harriet Beecher Stowe responded in another publication that he should save the Union only to free the slaves. slavery
1865   Robert E. Lee surrenders   Civil War
1865   13th Amendment outlaws slavery    
1865   Klu Klux Klan founded    
1865   Abraham Lincoln assassinated    
1867   Edmonia Lewis sells busts of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw    
1869   Massachusetts enfranchises Indians This ended the "protected" status that originated in the colonial period. Communities like Mashpee were divided Indian, franchise
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1870   First transcontinental train leaves Boston on a 39-day journey across the United States   economy
1870   French-Canadian workers fill Northern N.E. mill towns   labor, economy, immigration
1870   Most female wage workers are employed in factories or as household servants. In Boston, 8 of 10 household servants are foreign born. In textile mills, most are immigrants or the children of immigrants. women's work, population, immigration
1870   The whaling industry attracts thousands of immigrants from the Azores   immigration
1871   P.T. Barnum founds "The Greatest Show on Earth"    
1871   New England whaling ships crushed in ice of coast of Alaska   maritime
1875   Custer defeated at the Battle of Little Bighorn   Indians
1877   Hayes-Tilden Election resolved A compromise that guaranteed Rutherford Hayes' election also ended reconstruction in the south.  
1878   Old Ironsides takes last Atlantic voyage. After 1897 it is on exhibit in Boston. maritime
1880   New England fisheries decline   economy, maritime
1880   John Greenleaf Whittier writes poems about Quaker persecution.   Quaker
1885   After moving to Prout's Neck, Maine, Winslow Homer turned to the drama of seafaring.   maritime
1886   Police kill strikers at Haymarket in Chicago A Chicago Historical Society website lays out the evidence. labor
1888   Whittier supports women's suffrage.   suffrage, Quaker
1890   Fall River surpasses Lowell as largest producer of printed textiles   labor, economy
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1894   Immigration Restriction League Founded at Harvard   labor, population
1896   Supreme Court accepts doctrine of "separate but equal" in Plessy v. Ferguson    
1898   Emily Tyson begins refurbishing Hamilton House in Maine Now owned by SPNEA, Hamilton House is representative of the fascination of wealthy families with decaying colonial properties. colonial revival
1900   New England's 5.5 million people make up 7 percent of the U.S. population    
1900   75 of 100 New Englanders live in Mass, Conn, or RI   population distribution
1901   President William McKinley assassinated    
1903   New Bedford Whaling Museum founded   maritime
1909   NAACP formed    
1910   John F. Fitzgerald mayor of Boston    
1912   Strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts For photos and original documents provided by the SUNY-Binghamtom, "Women and Social Movements" Web site see, "The 1912 Lawrence Strike: How Did Immigrant Workers Struggle to Achieve an American Standard of Living?" labor, economy
1912   Workers at Lowell live in ethnic communities   immigration, labor
1920   19th Amendment gives women the vote    
1924   American Indians granted citizenship and the right to vote    
1924   Ku Klux Klan has 50,000 members in Maine    
1924   Congress passes restrictive immigration laws   population
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1924   First of New England textile mills moves south   labor, economy
1925   Vermont launches a Eugenics Survey   population, immigration
1927   Nicola Sacco and Bartholomeo Vanzetti executed   labor
1930   Nantucket Whaling Museum opened   maritime
1930   Old Man of the Mountain promoted as a tourist attraction. In the late 1920s the State of New Hampshire began efforts to stabilize the crumbling formation. profile
1940   Civil leaders of Portuguese descent gather before a mural of the Pilgrim fathers.   immigration
1940   World war II fuels new industries in New England   economy
1950   New England has over 9 million people, 6 percent of the nation's population   population
1954   Brown v. Board of Education overturns "separate but equal"    
1955   Montgomery Alabama Bus Boycott    
1960   Student sit-ins in the south    
1963   John F. Kennedy assassinated    
1964   Civil Rights Act targets race and sex    
1968   Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated    
1974   Judge Garrity orders school busing in Boston    
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2000   N. E.'s 12 million people compose less than 5 percent of the U.S. population   population
2003   Old Man of the Mountains collapses   profile
2006   Wampanoags receive preliminary recognition by Federal Government.   Mashpee

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