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Yonggang-dong Stone Chamber Tomb, Kyŏngju

 

- Excavated in 1986

- circa the late 7th - early 8th century

Earthenware figurines in Chinese style costume, small ceramic horses, and twelve zodiac figurines in bronze were discovered.

 

* The tomb before excavation

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Green Glazed Tile with Four Devas

 

- From Sach'ŏnwangsa Temple site

- Unified Silla, c 679

( * Gyeongju (Kyŏngju) National Museum collection)

The Four Devas are the guardians who stay at the four directions of the middle of Mt. Sumisan , which is the center of the Buddhist world. They comply with the Buddhist laws and protect the public. In India , they are expressed as nobles, but while they became known to North Asia and across Central Asia , their images changed to armored angry figures holding arms in their hands. The Four Devas of Korea come from China , and they became transformed into gods upholding the law or protecting the country in the process of unifying the Three Kingdoms by Silla. In this tile, the Four Devas are engraved in relief. They were first found in the two Stupas of Sach'ŏnwangsa Temple as broken pieces during the Japanese colonial period and were later reassembled. The Four Devas have a balanced body ratio and wear realistically described armor. The facial expressions of pain of the evil spirits being stepped on by the Four Devas, the muscular legs with projected bones, and the dynamic body gestures represent the culmination of realistic sculpture of the early Unified Silla period. Overall, the nuance of the countries bordering western China can be strongly felt. In addition to the Four Devas expressed on the Sarira Case of Kamŭnsa Temple, it is presumed to have been made by Yangji.

 

 

 

 


 

Iron Ingots

 

- From Tomb No. 2 at Daesŏng-dong site in Kimhae

- c 4th century C.E., Length: 21-25cm

(* Kimhae National Museum Collection)

 

 

 


 

Plate Armour

 

- Reportedly from T'oerae-ri, Kimhae

- c 4th century C.E., Height: 64.8cm

(* Kimhae National Museum Collection)

Armour, a kind of arms, is worn by soldiers for protection in battle, and has two types: scale armour made by weaving scales like fish scales, and plate armour made by connecting plates. The plate armour was made of lacquered wooden plate or leather at first, but later was made of iron as people became able to deal with iron. The plate armour has several types. By manufacturing technique, there are two types of plate armours: one is made by binding iron plates with leather straps, and the other is made by connecting iron plates with nails. Additionally, iron plate has various shapes such as square plate, rectangular plate, triangular plate, etc.

The plate armour in the picture was reportedly from T'oerae-ri, Kimhae. This plate armour was made connecting vertical rectangular plates with nails, and has swirl-patterned plates on the chest and back pieces. It is speculated that bird feathers might have been placed between the plates for decorative purposes.

 

 


 

Chamfron

 

- From Tomb No. M3 at Okchŏn, Hapch'ŏn

- c 5th century C.E., Length: 49.5cm

(* Kimhae National Museum Collection)

Chamfron and horse armour were designed to protect horses during battles, while armour and helmet were for the protection of soldiers. Chamfrons were originally made of leather to protect the head of horses, but were later made of iron plates. Horse armour was designed to protect the body of horses. It was not until the chamfron and horse armour were discovered from the ancient tombs of Kaya that we had a complete understandings of horse harness, even though there was evidence of chamfrons and horse armours in ancient wall paintings of the Koguryŏ tombs. A suit of horse armour was unearthed at the Tonghang-ri ancient tombs in Ham'an, and chamfrons are usually yielded from tomb sites of Kaya such as the Taesŏng-dong ancient tombs in Gimhae, and the Okchŏn ancient tombs in Hapch'ŏn.

 

 


 

 

Ornamental fitting with animal images

 

- Bronze, Reportedly from Kyongju, Kyongsang-pukdo

- c 3rd century B.C., Length: 23.8cm, present Width: 17.8cm

(* Tokyo National Museum Collection, Tokyo, Japan)

 

More information (In Japanese)