A. The Actors and Places of Research

AI. Research centers; AII. Libraries; AIII. Journals; AIV. Web sites; AV. Dissertations; AVI. Discussion lists and book reviews online

The list always has the European Union first, followed by CIS countries (Russia and Ukraine in particular), America and Japan. Many of the listed centers’, libraries’, and journals’ websites offer rich and useful links, which readers are invited to explore.



AI. Research centers

In alphabetical order. The sites contain news of the centers’ activities, publications, seminars, conferences, research programs, etc.


AIa. European Union

1. Centre d’Études du Monde Russe, Soviétique et Post-Soviétique, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), A multidisciplinary center devoted to the study of Russia, the USSR and the countries born out of its demise. History—from the XVII century to present—dominates, but sociology and economics are also represented. It has a library and publishes, in collaboration with the Centre d’histoire du domaine turc, the Cahiers du monde russe (see AIIIa. below).

2. Centre d’études slaves - Institut d’études slaves, CNRS, Université de Paris-Sorbonne (Paris-IV), . The Centre d’études slaves was founded in 1997. It has a library and publishes, in collaboration with the Institut d’études slaves, the Revue d’études slaves (see AIIIa. below).

3. Centre d’histoire du domaine turc, EHESS, Founded in 1995 as a successor of the Centre d’Études sur la Russie, l’Europe orientale et le domaine turc (1960) it is devoted to the study of Turkish-speaking peoples (Ottoman empire, Turkey, Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia).

4. Centre de Recherche russe et EurAsiatique, Inalco,

5. Centre de Recherches sur l’Histoire des Slaves (Institut Pierre Renouvin, Université Paris 1 - Panthéon Sorbonne),

6. Centre for Russian and East European Studies, University of Birmingham, Started in 1963, CREES is a multidisciplinary center, specializing in history and the social sciences. It has a good library and publishes a noteworthy series of working papers.

7. Institut für Osteuropäische Geschichte und Landeskunde, University of Tübingen, Founded in 1953 it specializes in the history of Russia- USSR, as well as of Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, and Baltic states.

8. Institute of Central and East European Studies (formerly Institute of Soviet and East European Studies), University of Glasgow,, covers developments in communist and post communist societies.

9. Osteuropa-Institut, Freie Universität Berlin, It sponsors research in all aspects of Russian and Eastern European history. It has a library and publishes the Forschungen zur Osteuropäischen Geschichte (see AIIIa. below).

10. Osteuropa Institut München, Founded in 1952 to study both the history and the economy of Eastern Europe. It sponsors many research projects, most importantly on Ukraine, has a good library and publishes the Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas (see AIIIa. below).

 11. The School for Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, Founded in 1915 by Robert Seton Watson and Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who gave the inaugural lecture on The Problem of Small Nations in the European Crisis, SSEES is the most important British institution devoted to studying Russia and Eastern Europe, containing a good library, with an online catalog.



AIb. CIS Countries

NB: Only some the main centers are listed.

11. History Chair, Faculty of Human Sciences, The University of Kiev-Mohyla-Academy,

12. Faculty of History, Moscow State University,

13. Faculty of History, Taras Shevchenko University of Kiev,

14. Institute of Historical Research, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv Founded in 1992, it has published since 1996 Modern Ukraine.

15. Memorial Association, Born in the 1980s to raise and preserve the memory of political persecution in the USSR, Memorial is today an association of organizations from different CIS countries and regions. Its archives are noteworthy.

16. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev,, with its Institute of History.

17. Russian Academy of Sciences (RAN),, with its institutes, (most notably that of Russian history, IRI) and its regional centers in Karelia, the Urals, Siberia, etc.

18. School of History, Kharkiv National University,


AIc. North America and Japan

22. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, University of Alberta, Founded in 1976, it is the largest Ukrainian research center outside of Ukraine.

23. Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Launched in 1991, it has been the main research project on the history of the Cold War. It publishes a noteworthy series of papers and a Bulletin (see AIIIc. below).

24. Davis Center for Russian Studies, Harvard University,, (formerly “Russian Research Center”). For years the most important American research center in the Soviet field, it published, among other things an important collection of monographs.

25. Harriman Institute for Russian Studies, Columbia University, The first research center in Russian history established in the USA.

26. Harvard Project on Cold War Studies, An important center of studies on the Cold War, the HPCWS publishes the Harvard Cold War Studies Book Series and the Journal of Cold War Studies (see AIIIc. below).

27. Harvard Program on Central Asia and the Caucasus, It maintains, among other things, the Central Eurasian Studies World Wide,, with its useful guide to the resources in the field (archives, research centers, libraries, bibliographies, dissertations, censuses, etc.).

28. Hoover Institution on War, Peace and Revolution, Stanford University, It has an important section devoted to Russian and Soviet history, with a rich library and archives. It published important monographs and document collections.

29. Kennan Institute for Russian Studies, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, It’s the only research center on Soviet and post-Soviet studies directly sponsored by the government. It publishes a series of papers.

30. Russian & East European Studies, University Center for International Studies, University of Pittsburgh,

31. Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University, The center coordinating these studies in Japan.

32. Ukrainian Research Institute, Harvard University, Founded in 1973, it publishes a series of monographs and the Harvard Ukrainian Studies (see AIIIc. below).


AII. Libraries

The possibility to consult online the catalogues of the world’s most important libraries, which the Internet granted to scholars and students the world over, is certainly one of the last decades’ most important and stunning advancements. The majority of these libraries’ sites can be found on Libweb (Library Servers via the Internet),, which lists more than 6,500 national and academic institutions. Iflanet at provides access to most national libraries; Gabriel, at, to European ones.


AIIa. European Union


1. Bibliothèque nationale de France,, and Catalogue collectif de France,

2. Bibliothèque de Documentation Internationale Contemporaine, Musée d’histoire contemporaine, Founded in 1917, it has perhaps the best collection on Soviet history in Western Europe. Unfortunately, recent years’ budgets didn’t allow it to keep up with its traditions.

3. Bibliothèque de l’Institut national des Langues et Civilisations Orientales,

4. Bibliothèque d’histoire du Centre d’études russes de l’Ehess,

5. Centre d’études et de documentation sur l’ex-URSS, la Chine et l’Europe de l’Est (Ceducee), at the Documentation Française,

The 6. Bibliothèque de l’Institut d’études slaves and 7. that of the Institut pour l’Histoire du Temps Présent (IHTP), are also noteworthy.


Besides the 8. British Library, , and the libraries of major Universities, like 9. Cambridge,, or 10. Oxford,, one may signal:

11. The Baykov Library of the Crees at Birmingham (see AIa. above) (42,000 volumes, including the personal collections of A. Baykov, B. Pares, E.H. Carr and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office).

12. The Library of the SofSEES (see AIa. above), part of the University College of London Library,, with more than 350,000 specialized volumes.


Of special interest for Russian and Soviet history is 13. the Helsinki University Library, which serves as the Finnish National Library, and especially its Slavonic Library,, with an impressive pre-, but also post-1917 collection (See Y. Aav, Russian bibliographies: bibliographies and books on librarianship printed in Russian characters in the Helsinki University Library, Zug, 1970 and Library of Congress (Processing Dept.), Russian periodicals in the Helsinki University Library: a checklist, Washington, 1959).


Besides the 14. National Library system, at, one can consult the Libraries of the above listed research centers, as well as 15. the Deutsche Zentralbibliothek fuer Wirtschaftswissenschaften, in Kiel,


The best “Italian” collection for Russian Studies belongs to a Vatican institution, the 16. Pontificio Istituto Orientale, at, particularly, but not exclusively, strong in religious affairs.




AIIb. CSI Countries

NB: The Soviet state’s strongly centralized character left its mark also in this field. So that even though important collections do exist elsewhere, especially in St. Petersburg, Moscow is by far the most important center.


16. The Russian State Library (RGB), formerly the Lenin Library,, is the largest Russian library and by far the richest for Soviet history.

17. The Russian Academy of Science’s Institute of Scientific Information for the Social Sciences (INION), , founded in 1969, is the most important center of scientific information in the humanities, boasting more than 13.5 million books and periodicals.

18. The State Public Historical Library (GPIB), always in Moscow,, is the largest library specializing in history, with more than 3.5 million pieces.

Also important are: 19. State Library of Political and Social Sciences (4, Ul. Vilgelma Pika, corp. 2, 129256 Moscow); 20. Memorial Library (see AIb. above) and 21. the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg.

Ukraine’s largest library is 22. the


Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, in Kyiv


AIIc. United States


23. The Library of Congress is the richest and largest library in the world. Its online catalogues are at It also used to publish them in huge collections, which are still useful, like The National Union Catalog, Pre-1956 Imprints, 685 vols., London, 1968-1980; the Cyrillic Union Catalog: In three parts, New York, 1964 and the Catalog Publication Division. Slavic Cyrillic Union Catalog of Pre-1956 Imprints, Totowa, 1980. See also its section devoted to Soviet history at

Soviet Union, A Country Study,

24. The New York Public Library,, has an extraordinary Russian fond. See its Slavic and Baltic Division,, with more than 413,000 volumes, 1,200 going periodicals, and 20,300 titles in microform. See also the Bibliographic Guide to Soviet and East European Studies, Boston, 1978-, which integrates the New York City Public Library, Slavonic Division, Dictionary catalog of the Slavonic collection, 44 vols., Boston: Hall, 1974.

25. The Harvard University Library system, at, is perhaps the best scholarly system in the world. See also Harvard University Library, Slavic history and literatures, 4 vols., Cambridge, MA, 1971.

26. Also important is the Library of the Hoover Institution (see AIc. above),, and particularly It holds exceptional collections on the civil war, as well as many personal archives, for a total of 340,000 volumes, 6,400 periodicals, and 1,400 newspapers. See Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, The Library Catalogs of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, Stanford University: Catalog of the Western Language Collections, 63 vols., Boston: G. K. Hall, 1969; W.S. Sworakowski, The Hoover Library Collection on Russia, Stanford, 1954; Stanford University, Hoover Institution, Menshevik Collection of Newspapers, Periodicals, Pamphlets and Books Related to the Menshevik Movement: Reel Index, Palo Alto, 1967.

27. The Slavic and East European Library in the Library of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,, with almost 700,000 volumes on Russia and Eastern Europe.

One should of course also keep in mind the other American universities’ great research libraries, like those of Columbia, Yale, Princeton, Chicago and Berkeley, whose catalogues are freely available online.


AIII. Journals

I list here only the most important among those still in print. One should not however forget journals whose publication ceased, such as Boris Souvarine’s Le contrat social, and François Maspero’s L’alternative in France, or Kritika in the USA (where a journal carrying the same name has been recently started –see AIIIc. below). One should also keep in mind that all “general” academic journals (in history, sociology, economics, politics, foreign relations, etc.) published important articles on Soviet history. Their content can be easily checked using specialized databanks, like J-Stor, the Scholarly journal archive, at, Project Muse, at, Academic Search Premier, at, and Proquest, at, to which many university libraries subscribe. Thanks to the Internet it is today also possible to contact many of the world’s scholarly journals online. Sites like the Spanish D’Història. El fil d’Ariadna. History Journal Index or the German The History Journals Guide,, which also includes an online articles index, a discussion list directory, and an online reviews index, provide good starting points.


AIIIa. European Union

1. Cahiers du monde russe,, (formerly Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique), published by the Centre d’études russes of the Ehess. See the Sommaire des volumes I à XXIX. Table 1959-1988, Supplement to volume XXX, 3-4.

2. Central Asian Studies,, founded in 1981 is a journal specializing in the history, politics, culture, religion, and economy of Central Asia and Caucasus.

3. Économies et Sociétés, Founded in 1944 and published by the Institut des sciences mathématiques et économiques appliquées (ISMEA), it paid great attention to the USSR in the past.

4. Europe-Asia Studies, (formerly Soviet Studies). Founded in 1949, it is the most important British journal on Soviet history.

5. Forschungen zur Osteuropäischen Geschichte, published by the Osteuropa-Institut.

6. Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas,, of the Osteuropa Institut in Munich.

7. Revolutionary Russia,, is the first English-language journal to concentrate on this period of Russian history.

8. Revue des études comparatives Est-Ouest, founded in 1970 and devoted to socialist and post-socialist countries.

9. Revue des études slaves, Founded in 1921, and published by the Centre d’études slaves. It specializes in Slavic languages and literatures, but also devotes considerable room to history, arts, culture, etc.

10. The Slavonic and East European Review,, is the only British journal devoted to all aspects of Eastern European life and history. It has a good book review section.


AIIIb. CIS Countries

11. Ab Imperio. Theory and History of Nationalities and Nationalism in the Post-Soviet Realm,, founded in Kazan’ in 2000, it is a new journal of great interest and quality.

12. Istochnik. Dokumenty Russkoi Istorii, founded in 1993, since 1995 it also includes the Vestnik Archiva Prezidenta Rossiiskoi Federatsii. It has published original documents of fundamental importance.

13. Istoricheskii Arkhiv. Published first in 1955-1962, and then again after 1992, it has published critical editions of crucial texts.

14. Novaia i Noveishaia Istoriia,, launched in 1957, after the XX Party Congress, is published by the Russian Academy’s Institute of World History.

15. Otechestvennaia Istoriia (up to 1992 Istoriia SSSR), published since 1957 by the Academy’s Insitute of Russian History. Today, it is Russia’s most important historical journal.

16. Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniia, started in 1974 was the USSR’s most important sociological journal. It published important essay on Soviet society’s features and evolution (see also Soviet Sociology, 1962-1991, which translated some of them into English).

17. Svobodnaia Mysl’ (the new name taken in 1992 by Kommunist, the official organ of the KPSU Central Committee). It has published interesting articles on Soviet history.

18. Voprosy Istorii,, founded in 1926 as Istoricheskii Zhurnal. See J.L.H. Keep, Moscow’s Problems of History: a Select Critical Bibliography of the Soviet Journal Voprosy Istorii, 1956-1985, Ottawa, 1986 and A.S. Powell, Voprosy Istorii: Author Index 1945-1975, Nendeln: KTO, 1977.

19. Ukraïn’kyi Istorychnyi Zhurnal,, published by the Ukrainian National Academy of Science’s Institute of History, is the most important Ukrainian historical journal.


AIIIc. North America and Japan

20. Canadian-American Slavic Studies, formerly published as Canadian Slavic Studies / Revue canadienne d’études slaves.

21. Canadian Slavonic Papers/Revue canadienne des slavistes, , the journal of the Canadian Slavic Association.

22. CWIHP Bulletin,, founded in 1992, and freely available online, in the 1990s it published essays and documents of extraordinary interest.

23. Harvard Ukrainian Studies,, the journal of the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute.

24. Journal of Cold War Studies,, launched in 1999 by Mark Kramer, the Harvard Project on Cold War Studies’ director, it’s today the most important journal in the field.

25. Journal of Ukrainian Studies,, published by the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies.

26. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History,, founded in 2000 it carries the name of Kritika. Review of Soviet books on Russian history, published at Harvard in 1964-84. It has a good book reviews section.

27. Nationality Papers, launched in 1972, it’s devoted to studying the non-Russian nationalities of the former Soviet Union, as well as national minorities in Central and Eastern Europe.

28. Problems of Post-Communism,, which replaced, after a few years’ interruption, Problems of Communism, since 1953 an important forum for the analysis of the political, social and economic situation in socialist countries.

29. Russian Review, An American quarterly devoted to Russia past and present, RR publishes articles, review articles, and reviews. Historical materials are featured prominently.

30. Russian History/Histoire russe, founded in 1974 at the Russian & East European Studies, University Center for International Studies, University of Pittsburgh.

31. Slavic and East European Journal,, founded in 1957 by the American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages. Devoted mostly to language and literature, it does publish some historical studies.

32. Slavic Review,, the official organ of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies (AAASS), with an excellent book reviews section.

33. Slavic Studies,, published since 1957 by the Slavic Research Center of the University of Hokkaido, where the Acta slavica japonica has also been published since 1983.

34. Soviet Studies in History, founded in 1962 (since 1992 Russian Studies in History), publishes translations of important articles that appeared in Soviet and now Russian journals.

35. Communist and post-communist studies (formerly Studies in Comparative Communism).



AIV. Web sites

Besides those listed above, there are hundreds, if not thousands, of Soviet history sites. Most of them include long lists of links, leading to yet more links, in a never-ending game. Here only the most important and trustworthy ones are listed. The first eight in particular provide convenient starting points to explore the richness, and pitfalls, today available online. Their authors deserve much credit for the service thus rendered to the profession.


1. The Internet Guides for Slavic and East European Studies,, prepared by the Slavic and East European Section (SEES) of the U.S. Association of College and Research Libraries.

2. The quite useful and very rich site of the Chair of National contemporary history at the RGGU, prepared by L.P. Afanas’eva and V.A. Khokhlov, Its electonic library and bibliographies are especially noteworthy.

3. The already mentioned site of the Harvard Project of Cold War Studies,, with its most useful index of all links.

4. The English-Language Primary Sources for the Study of Soviet History, at Harvard, started by Prof. Terry Martin,, with its data bases: a) The party-state (document collections & writing of party leaders); b) Soviet society (biographies & Harvard Project on the Soviet Social System); c) state publishing (newspapers, journals, pamphlets, booklets..., Soviet fiction); d) outside observers (travelers’ accounts  & foreign diplomatic sources); other (further bibliographies).

5. The REESweb maintained by the University Center for Russian and East European Studies at the University of Pittsburgh,, which is also the gateway for Russian and Soviet studies to The World Wide Web Virtual Library.

6. A Research Guide to Soviet History prepared by Prof. Donald J. Raleigh, of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, at

7. The Russian Reference Works site, prepared by Wojciech Zalewski and maintained by the Slavic and East European Collections in the Stanford University Libraries at

8. The Russian and Slavic Web Resources, maintained by the San Diego State University Library and Information access at


There also exist high quality sites devoted to particular, but important aspects of Soviet history, as (9.) Démographie de la Russie,, on demographic trends today and in the past, as well as the history of Russian demographic studies, edited by Alexander Avdeev, Center of Demographic Studies at the Faculty of Economics, Moscow State University, and Alain Blum, Institut national d’études démographique.


Also interesting are the (10.) site of the Parallel History Project on NATO and the Warsaw Pact,, and that of the (11.) Open Society Archives,, with material relating to communism, the Cold War, and human rights. Sites like this often host minor but as noteworthy sites like the (12.) Forced Labor Camps On-line Exhibition,


In (13.) Iz arkhivov russkoi revoliutsii, 1917-37,, one may find original-language texts of protagonists of the Soviet regime’s early stages. Short biographies and unabridged texts of socialist and communist leaders are available on (14.) Internet Archive,


As far as individual states and their history are concerned, one should look first at the relevant pages on the World Wide Web Virtual Library. Those on Russian history can be, for instance, found at (15.) Russian History Index,, and those for Ukraine at (16.) WWW-VL History Ukraine,

Sites like (17.) EurasiaNet,, provide information, analyses, reviews, etc. on Central Asia and the Caucasus (but also on Russia and the Middle East), and devote special sub-sites to various nationalities, as in the case of the Crimean Tatars, at (18.) Always devoted to Central Asia is the already mentioned (19.) Central Eurasian Studies World Wide,


Information on the 1980s can be found for example in the site of the Gorbachev Foundation (20.), Devoted instead to post-Soviet Russia is the (21.) Centre for Russian Studies Database of the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), freely available at While the material it contains relates to post-1991 events, one can find useful information about ethnic groups, regions, institutions, political parties, etc., during the Soviet period.


English translations of some important Soviet literary works, together with information on their authors, can be found at (22.), which also has good Soviet literature links at


It is also important to keep in mind the existence of major sites which are by fee-based access only, like (23.) Integrum World Wide,, or (24.) Universal Database of Russian Publications (Eastview),, which are among the richest databases for post-Soviet countries, providing access to hundreds of data banks, local and national newspapers, journals, magazines, etc.


Lastly, it is worth remembering an individual site, (25.) the Sher’s Russian Index,, a good guide to the myriad sites providing information on subjects ranging from ex-convicts’ tattoos to Russian radio stations, from traditional recipes to Russian masons’ texts, etc. Its history section is also noteworthy.


AV. Dissertations


Dissertation Abstracts international, vol. 1 (1938), divided since 1969 in two series, A. (humanities and social sciences) and B. (hard sciences), and Dissertation Abstracts, at, list dissertations defended in mostly, but not solely, American universities. Since 1997 they provide also the dissertations’ full text. History dissertations are also listed in Historical Abstracts (see CIa. below).


A repertoire of French dissertations is kept by the INIST-CNRS, which also maintains a data bank at, where dissertation in history, economics and social sciences are listed. Also of interest is Téléthèses, maintained since 1986 by the Agence Bibliographique de l’Enseignement Supérieur, at, listing all the dissertations defended in France, Grandes Écoles included.

Dissertations on Central Asia and the Caucasus can be found on the already mentioned (6.) Central Eurasian Studies World Wide,


There are also useful guides in print, such as:

J.J. Dossick, Doctoral Research on Russia and the Soviet Union, New York, 1960.

J.J. Dossick, Doctoral Research on Russia and the Soviet Union, 1960-1975, New York, 1975

American, Canadian and British dissertations on the Soviet Union are also listed, since 1975, in the Slavic Review winter issue.

La guide du slaviste, Paris: Institut d’études slaves, 1969, lists the dissertations on Russia and the Soviet Union defended in France since 1824.

For German dissertation one may consult the Historische Bibliographie & Jahrbuch der historischen Forschung, as well as the Digitale Dissertationen im Internet,


For information on dissertations defended in the USSR and, later, in Russia, see:

Gosudarstvennaia biblioteka SSSR imeni V. I. Lenina, Katalog doktorskikh i kandidatskikh dissertatsii, postupivshikh v Gosudarstvennuiu biblioteku SSSR imeni V. I. Lenina (Serial).

Letopis’ avtoreferatov dissertatsii /Rossiiskaia knizhnaia palata (1993-) (Serial).

P.A. Zaionchkovskii, ed., Doktorskie i kandidatskie dissertatsii, zashchishchennye v MGU s 1934 po 1954 g., Moscow, 1956-.

Bibliografiia dissertatsii po obshchestvennym naukam, zashchishchennykh v sovetskoi Armenii za 1970-1975 gg., Erevan, 1977.

AVI. Discussion lists and reviews online


Since the beginning of the 1990s the scholarly community has had at its disposal a new tool of extraordinary usefulness, the Discussion lists. There are specialized discussion lists on various topics in most countries, but the most important are undoubtedly the more than 100 supported by H-Net (Humanities and social science online,, with more than 100,000 members from 90 countries. These lists are used to discuss and exchange information, reviews, news of conferences and meetings, etc. H-Russia, at, is the special list for students of Soviet history. It has also become a formidable reference aid, to which members resort to ask for and give information spanning topics from bibliographical questions to addresses and hours of libraries and archives. Related lists, such as H-Hapsburg, H-German, H-war, H-Judaic, H-Turk, etc., where one may ask for help in case of need, are also helpful.

Since 1993 H-Net started to post book reviews. They are all freely accessible at H-Net Reviews in the Humanities and Social Sciences,

Since 1996 British history book reviews have been also posted on Reviews in History,