D. Works

DI. General Histories; DII. General Works on Specific Topics; DIII. Works on Specific Periods


A vast number Š perhaps hundreds of thousands Š of books and essays have been devoted to the Soviet experience. This means that for each one of the titles listed below (see for instance the bibliographies quoted in section CIb), hundreds more could be added. This list is thus very selective, including what I believe to be the most important works and but a handful of articles and dissertations. As I wrote in the introduction, and for the reasons given there, I have accorded preference to material in Western languages. For the same reasons, I have listed important works in Russian, Ukrainian, and other languages in translation, whenever possible.

Because most of the listed works have been, and often still are, important, or representative of major trends and opinions, I asked myself whether it was appropriate to highlight some among them. Ultimately I did so, guided by my personal preferences, not to diminish the others but in the hope of enliving what could have seemed a dreary list.


The section has three main subdivisions. The first is devoted to general works on Tsarist history, 1861-1914; Soviet and Russian history; and history of the main Soviet republics and nationalities. The second is arranged by topic. The third chronologically. A few works on other socialist countries, as well as on the communist movement, have been included.

The thematic portion includes works of a more theoretical nature, or ambition, as well as those covering large segments of Soviet history. In the chronological section I grouped the studies exclusively or mainly devoted to specific periods, such as the civil war, the NEP, the 1930s, World War II, the thaw, etc. Within each of these periods, I arranged the works once again by topic, such as countryside, memoirs, foreign policy, etc.



DI. General Histories


DIa. Russian empire

O. Anweiler, The Soviets, 1905-1921, New York, 1974;

A. Asher, The Revolution of 1905, 2 vols., Stanford, 1988-1992;

A. Ascher, P.A. Stolypin. The Search for Stability in Late Imperial Russia, Stanford, 2001;

D. Beauvois, La bataille pour la terre en Ukraine, 1863-1914, Lille, 1993 (a different perspective);

D.R. Brower, E.J. Lazzerini, eds., RussiaÕs Orient: Imperial Borderlands and Peoples, 1700-1917, Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1997;

G. Cigliano, Liberalismo e rivoluzione in Russia: il 1905 nellÕesperienza di M.M. Kovalevskij, Napoli: Liguori, 2002;

F.-X. Coquin, 1905: la RŽvolutions russe manquŽe, Bruxelles, 1905;

F.-X. Coquin, Des pres du peuple au pre des peuples: la Russie de 1825 ˆ 1929, Paris, 1991;

F.-X. Coquin, La SibŽrie: peuplement et immigration paysanne au XIX-XX sicle, Paris, 1969;

M. Confino, Systmes agraires et progrs agricole, Paris, 1969 (a beautiful book);

T. Dan, The Origins of Bolshevism, London, 1964 (a classic);

T. Emmons, The Formation of Political Parties and the First National Elections in Russia, Cambridge, 1983;

J. Frankel, Prophecy and Politics: Socialism, Nationalism and the Russian Jews, 1862-1917, Cambridge, 1981;

M. Gammer, Muslim Resistance to the Tsar: Shamil and the Conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan, London: Frank Cass, 1994; 

P. Gatrell, The Tsarist Economy, 1850-1917, London, 1986;

V. Gitermann, Geschichte Russlands (1949), 3 vols., Frankfurt (Main): AthenŠum, 1987;

P.R. Gregory, Russian National Income, 1885-1913, Cambridge, 1982;

L.H. Haimson, The Russian Marxists and the Origins of Bolshevism, Cambridge, MA, 1955;

A. Kappeler, The Russian Empire: A Multiethnic History, New York, 2001 (important);

A. Khalid, The Politics of Muslim Cultural Reform: Jadidism in Central Asia, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999;

L. Kołakowski, Main Currents of Marxism, Oxford, 1981;

T. von Laue, Witte and the Industrialization of Russia, New York, 1963;

A. Leroy-Beaulieu, The Empire of the Tsars and the Russian, 3 vols. New York, 1902-03;

D. Lieven, The Russian Empire and Its Rivals, London, 2000;

P.I. Liashchenko, History of the National Economy of Russia to 1917, New York, 1949;

H-D. Lšwe, Die Lage der Bauern in Russland 1880-1905, St. Katharinen, 1987;

P. Miliukov, Ch. Seignobos, H. Eisenmann, History of Russia (1933), 3 vols., New York, 1968 ;

J. Pallot, Land Reform in Russia, 1906-1917, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999;

P. Pascal, Civilisation paysanne en Russie, 2 vols., Lausanne: LÕåge dÕhomme, 1969;

R. Philippot, Les Zemstvos: sociŽtŽ civile et Etat bureaucratique dans la Russie tsariste, Paris: Institut dՎtudes slaves, 1991;

R. Pipes, Russia under the Old Regime, London, 1974;

G. Plekhanov, History of Russian Social Thought, New York, 1967;

M. Raeff, Understanding Imperial Russia: State and Societ in the Old Regime, New York, 1984;

G.T. Robinson, Rural Russia under the Old Regime, New York, 1969;

H. Rogger, Russia in the Age of Modernization and Revolution, 1881-1917, London: Longman, 1983;

H. Seton-Watson, The Russian Empire, 1801-1917, Oxford, 1967 (important);

G. Sokoloff, Puissance pauvre, Paris, 1993;

M.K. Stockdale, Paul Miljukov and the Quest for a Liberal Russia, 1880-1918, Ithaca, NY, 1996;

F. Venturi, Roots of Revolution: The History of Populist and Socialist Movements in Nineteenth Century Russia, London, 1960 (a classic);

A. Walicki, A History of Russian Thought from Enlightenment to Marxism, Stanford, 1979;

P.A. Zaionchkovskii (the best Soviet specialist), The Abolition of Serfdom in Russia (Moscow, 1960), Gulf Breeze, FL, 1978;

P.A. Zaionchkovskii, The Russian Autocracy in Crisis, 1878-1882 (Moscow, 1964), Gulf Breeze, FL, 1979.



DIb. USSR and Russia


Iu.N. AfanasÕev, ed., Sovetskoe obshchestvo: vozniknovenie, razvitie, istoricheskii final, 2 vols., Moscow, 1997;

F. Benvenuti, Storia della Russia contemporanea, Roma: Laterza, 1999;

H. Carrre dÕEncausse, A History of the Soviet Union, 1917-1953, London, 1981;

R. Girault, M. Ferro, De La Russie ˆ lÕURSS, Paris, 1989;

M. Heller, A. Nekritch, Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union, London, 1986 (the dissidentsÕ history Švery good up to the Brezhnev era);

M. Hildermeier, LinkGeschichte der Sowjetunion, 1917-1991: Entstehung und Niedergang des ersten sozialistischen Staates, MŸnchen: Verlag C.H. Beck, 1998;

G. Hosking, The First Socialist Society: A History of the Soviet Union from Within, Cambridge, MA, 1993;

History of the USSR in Three Parts, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1982 (A translation of Istoriia S.S.S.R., the Brezhnevite official text);

P. Kenez, A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End, Cambridge, 1999;

M. Lewin, The Making of the Soviet System: Essays in the Social History of Interwar Russia, New York, 1985 (important);

M. Lewin, Le sicle soviŽtique, Paris: Fayard, 2003;

M. Laran, J.-L. Van Regemorter, La Russie et lÕex-URSS de 1914 ˆ nos jours, Paris, 2000;

R. Pethybridge, A History of Post-War Russia, London, 1974;

R.G. Pikhoia, Sovetskii soiuz: istoriia vlasti, 1945-1991, Moscow, 1998 (perhaps the best work on the postwar period);

S. Pons, A. Romano, eds., Russia in the age of wars, 1914-1945, Milano: Feltrinelli 2000;

N. Riasanovsky, A History of Russia, New York, 2000;

K. Schlšgel, ed., Der grosse Exodus: Die russische Emigration und ihre Zentren, 1917 bis 1941, Munich, 1994;

R.G. Suny, The Soviet Experiment: Russia, the USSR and the Successor States, New York, 1998;

D. Treadgold, Twentieth Century Russia, Boulder: Westeview, 1987;

N. Werth, Histoire de lÕUnion soviŽtique, Paris: PUF, 1992 ;

V. Zaslavsky, Storia del sistema sovietico: lÕascesa, la stabilitˆ, il crollo, Roma: NIS, 1995.



DIc. Nationalities, general

See also DIIh. Repression and political police, and the chronological subsections below.


S. Blank, The Sorcerer as Apprentice: Stalin as Commissar of Nationalities, 1917-1924, Westport, CT, 1994;

P. Blitstein, ŅStalinÕs Nations: Soviet Nationality Policy between Planning and Primordialism,Ó Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 1999;

Y.M. Brudny, Reinventing Russia: Russian Nationalism and the Soviet State, 1953-1991, Cambridge, MA, 1998 (an interesting perspective);

J. Cadiot, ŅLa constitution des catŽgories nationales dans lÕEmpire de Russie et dans lÕUnion des RŽpubliques Socialistes SoviŽtiques (1897-1939): Statisticiens, ethnographes et administrateurs face ˆ la diversitŽ du ŌnationalÕÓ, Ph.D. Dissertation, EHESS, 2001;

H. Carrre dÕEncausse, The Great Challenge: Nationalities and the Bolshevik State, 1917-1930, New York, 1992;

W. Connor, The National Question in Marxist-Leninist Theory and Strategy, Princeton, 1984;

R. Denber, ed., The Soviet Nationality Reader: The Disintegration in Context, Boulder, CO.: Westview, 1992;

I. Dzyuba, Internationalism or Russification, 3rd ed. New York: Monad Press, 1974 (a classic);

G. Gleason, Federalism and Nationalism. The Struggle for Republican Rights in the USSR, Boulder, 1990;

F. Hirsch, ŅThe Soviet Union as a Work-in-Progress: Ethnographers and the Category Nationality in the 1926, 1937, and 1939Ó, Slavic Review, 2 (1997) (see also her Ph.D. Dissertation, ŅEmpire of Nations: Colonial Technologies and the Making of the Soviet Union, 1917-1939,Ó Princeton University, 1998);

L. Hajda, M. Beissenger, eds., The Nationalities Factor in Soviet Politics and Society, Boulder, CO, 1990;

R.J. Kaiser, The Geography of Nationalism in Russia and the USSR, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994;

V. Kozlov, The Peoples of the Soviet Union, London, 1988;

Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, G. Veinstein, S.E. Wimbush, eds., PassŽ turco-tatar, PrŽsent soviŽtique (Žtudes offertes ˆ Alexandre Bennigsen), Paris, 1986;

T. Martin, An Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923-1939, Ithaca, NY, 2001 (the best book on the topic);

A. Motyl, ed., Thinking Theoretically about Soviet Nationalities, New York, 1992;

B. Nahaylo, V. Swoboda, Soviet Disunion: A History of the Nationality Problem in the Soviet Union, London, 1990;

Problems of Communism 16, 5 (1967), special issue on nationalities and nationalism in the USSR;

J. Radvanyi, LÕURSS: rŽgions et nations, Paris: Masson, 1990;

M.-P. Rey, De la Russie ˆ lÕUnion soviŽtique: la construction de lÕEmpire, Paris: Hachette, 1994;

G. Simon, Nationalismus und NationalitŠtenpolitik in der Sowjetunion, Baden-Baden, 1986;

Y. Slezkine, ŅThe USSR as a Communal Apartment, or How a Socialist State Promoted Ethnic Particularism,Ó Slavic Review, 2 (1994);

M. Smith, Language and Power in the Creation of the USSR, 1917-1953, Berlin, 1998;

T. Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003;

R.G. Suny, T. Martin, eds., A State of Nations: Empire and Nation-Making in the Age of Lenin and Stalin, Oxford, 2001;

R. Szporluk, Communism and Nationalism: Karl Marx versus Friedrich List, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988 (a crucial question);

L. Tillett, The Great Friendship: Soviet Historians on the Non-Russian Nnationalities, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969;

S.A. Tokarev, URSS: popoli e costumi (Moscow, 1958), Bari: Laterza, 1969;

P.N. Wexler, Purism and Language: A Study in Modern Ukrainian and Belorussian Nationalism (1840-1967), Bloomington, IN, 1974.


DIc1. Central Asia

S.A., Adshead, Central Asia in World History, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992;

E. Allworth, ed., Central Asia. 130 Years of Russian Dominance: A Historical Overview, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994;
E. Allworth,
The Modern Uzbeks, Stanford, 1990;

A.L. Edgar, ŅThe Creation of Soviet Turkmenistan, 1924-1938,Ó Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 1999;

En Asie centrale soviŽtique, special issue, Cahiers du monde russe et soviŽtique, 1 (1991);

A. Bennigsen, C. Lemercier-Quelquejay, Le Soufi et le commissaire: les confrŽries musulmanes en URSS, Paris: Seuil, 1986;

H. Carrre dÕEncausse, RŽforme et rŽvolution chez les musulmans de lÕEmpire russe. Bukhara, 1867-1924, Paris, 1966;

Des ethnies aux nations en Asie centrale, special issue, Revue du monde musulman et de la MŽditerranŽe, 1 (1992);

S. A. Dudoignon e Komatsu Isao (eds.), Islam and Politics in Russia and Central Asia (Early Eighteen to Late Twentieth Centuries), London, New York & Bahrain, Kegan Paul, 2001;

W. Fierman, ed., Soviet Central Asia: The Failed Transformation, Boulder, CO., 1991;

R.D. Kangas, Uzbekistan in the Twentieth Century: Political Development and Evolution of Power, New York: St. MartinÕs, 1994;

B. Hayit, ŅBasmatschiÓ: nationaler Kampf Turkestans in den Jahren 1917 bis 1934, Kšln: Dreisam, 1992;

S. Keller, To Moscow, not Mecca. The Soviet Campaign against Islam in Central Asia, 1917-1941, Westport: Praeger, 2001;

N. Lubin, Labor and Nationality in Soviet Central Asia, Princeton, 1984;

G. Massell, The Surrogate Proletariat. Moslem Women and Revolutionary Strategies in Soviet Central Asia, 1919-1929, Princeton, 1974;

W. Myer, Islam and Colonialism. Western Perspectives on Soviet Asia, London, 2002;

D. Northrop, ŅUzbek women and the veil: gender and power in Stalinist Central AsiaÓ, Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1999;
M.B. Olcott, The Kazakhs, Stanford, 1987;

M. Payne, StalinÕs Railroad: Turksib and the Building of Socialism, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001;

O. Roy, The New Central Asia: The Creation of Nations, New York, 2000;

B. Rumer, Soviet Central Asia, London, 1989;
S.A. Zenkovsky,
Panturkism and Islam in Russia, 1905-1920, Cambridge, MA, 1967.


DIc2. The Baltics

A. Bertricau, ed., LÕEstonie: identitŽ et indŽpendance, Paris: lÕHarmattan, 2001 ;

J. Hiden, The Baltic Nations and Europe: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the Twentieth Century, London: Longman, 1994;

O. Mertelsmann, ed., The Sovietization of the Baltic States, 1940-1956, Tartu: Kleio, 2003;

R.J. Misiunas, R. Taagepera, The Baltic States: Years of Dependence, 1940-1980, Berkeley, 1983;

G. von Rauch, The Baltic States: The Years of Independence, 1917-1940, New York, 1995;

V.S. Vardys, ed., Lithuania under the Soviets: Portrait of a Nation, New York: Praeger, 1965;

V.S. Vardys, Lithuania: The Rebel Nation, Boulder, CO.: Westview Press, 1997.


DIc3. Belarus

F. Depelteau, A. Lacassagne, eds, Le BŽlarus. LÕEtat de lÕexception, Les Presses de lÕUniversitŽ Laval, Canada, 2003;

B. Drweski, La BiŽlorussie, Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1993 ;

A. Goujon et al., eds., Chroniques sur la BiŽlorussie contemporaine, LÕHarmattan (Ē BiŽlorussie Č), Paris, 2001;

I.S. Lubachko, Belorussia under Soviet Rule, 1917-1957, Lexington, 1972;

D.R. Marples, Belarus: From Soviet Rule to Nuclear Catastrophe, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996;

D. Siebert, BŠuerliche Alltagstrategien in der belarussischen SSR (1921-1941): die Zerstšrung patriarchalischer Familienwirtschaft, Stuttgart: F. Steiner, 1998;

N.P. Vakar, Belorussia: The Making of a Nation, a Case Study, Cambridge, MA, 1956.


DIc4. Transcaucasia

R.G. Suny, ed., Transcaucasia, Nationalism and Social Change: Essays in the History of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996.


DIc4a. Armenia

R. Hovannisian, ed., The Armenian People, 2 vol., New York, 1997;

R. Hovannisian, The Republic of Armenia, 5 vols., Berkeley, 1971-1996;

C. Mouradian, De Staline ˆ Gorbatchev: histoire dÕune rŽpublique soviŽtique, lÕArmŽnie, Paris: Ramsay, 1990 ;

R.G. Suny, Looking toward Ararat: Armenia in Modern History, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.


DIc4b. Azerbaijan

A.L. Altstadt, The Azerbaijani Turks: Power and Identity under Russian Rule, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1992; 

Jšrg Baberowski, "Der Feind ist Ÿberall". Stalinismus im Kaukasus, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, MŸnchen - Stuttgart 2003;

T. Swietochowski, Russian Azerbaijan, 1905-1920, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.


DIc4c. Georgia

K. Salia, History of the Georgian Nation, Paris, 1983;

R.G. Suny, The Making of the Georgian Nation, Bloomington, 1994.


DIc5. The North and Siberia

En islam sibŽrien, special issue, Cahiers du monde russe, 2-3 (2000) ;

Y. Slezkine, Arctic Mirrors: Russia and the Small Peoples of the North, Ithaca, NY, 1994.


DIc6. Tatars

A. Allworth, ed., The Tatars of Crimea: Return to the Homeland, Durham: Duke University Press, 1998;

Iu.V. Arutiunian, ed., SotsialÕnoe i natsionalÕnoe. Opyt etnosotsiologicheskikh issledovanii po materialam Tatarstanskoi ASSR, Moscow: Nauka, 1973;

A. Bennigsen, C. Lemercier-Quelquejay, Les Mouvements nationaux chez les musulmans de Russie: le ŅsultangalievismeÓ au Tatarstan, Paris: Mouton, 1960 ;

A.-A. Rorlich, The Volga Tatars: A Profile in National Resilience, Stanford, CA.: Hoover Institution Press, 1986.


DIc7. Ukraine

See the 1930s subsections for works on the 1932-33 famine.


I. Bilinsky, The Second Soviet Republic: The Ukraine after World War II, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1964;

S. BilokinÕ, Masovyj teror jak zasib derzhavnoho upravlinnja v SRSR (1917-1941 rr), 2 vol., Kyiv, 1999;

A. Kappeler, Kleine Geschichte der Ukraine, MŸnchen: C.H. Beck, c1994;

A. Kappeler, F. Sysyn, Z. Kohut, eds., Culture, Nation, and Identity: The Ukrainian-Russian Encounter, 1600-1945, Toronto, 2003;

I.S. Koropeckyj, ed., Ukrainian Economic History, Edmonton: CIUS, 1991;

B. Krawchenko, Social Change and National Consciousness in XX Century Ukraine, New York, 1985;

S.V. KulÕchytsÕkyi, Ukraїna mizh dvoma viynamy (1921-1939 rr.), Kyїv, 1999;

S.V. KulÕchytsÕkyi, ed., Politychnyi teror i teroryzm v Ukraїni, Kyїv, 2002;

H. Kuromiya, Freedom and Terror in the Donbas: A Ukrainian-Russian Borderland, 1870s-1990s, Cambridge, 1998;

B. Lewitzkyj, Politics and Society in Soviet Ukraine, 1953-1980, Edmonton, Alta, 1985;

G.O. Liber, Soviet Nationality Policy, Urban Growth, and Identity Change in the Ukrainian SSR, 1923-1934, Cambridge, 1992;

G.S. Luckyj, Literary Politics in the Soviet Ukraine (1956), Durham, 1990;

J. Mace, Communism and the Dilemmas of National Liberation: National Communism in Ukraine, 1918-33, Cambridge, MA, 1983;

P.R. Magocsi, Galicia: A Historical Survey and Bibliographic Guide, Toronto, 1983;

P.R. Magocsi, A History of Ukraine, Toronto, 1996;

F. MeslŽ, J. Vallin, MortalitŽ et causes de dŽcs en Ukraine au XXe sicle, Le Cahiers de lÕINED: Paris, 2003;

A.J. Motyl, The Turn to the Right: The Ideological Origins and Development of Ukrainian Nationalism, 1919-1929, New York: Columbia University Press, 1980;

O. Pachlovska, Civiltˆ letteraria ucraina, Carocci: Roma, 1998;

S. Plokhy, F. Sysyn, Religion and Nation in Modern Ukraine, CIUS, Edmonton, 2001;

P.J. Potichnyj, M. Raeff, J. Pelenski, G.N. Zekulin, eds., Ukraine and Russia in Their Historical Encounter, Edmonton: CIUS, 1992;

P.J. Potichnyj, H. Aster, eds., Ukrainian-Jewish Relations in Historical Perspective, Edmonton 1990;

I.L. Rudnytsky, Essays in Modern Ukrainian History, Edmonton, 1987 (some of them very intelligent);

I.L. Rudnytsky, Rethinking Ukrainian History, Edmonton, 1981;

Iu.I. Shapoval, Ukra•na XX stolittia, Kyiv: Heneza, 2001;

O. Subtelny, Ukraine: A History, 3rd ed., Toronto, 2000;

R.S. Sullivant, Soviet Politics and the Ukraine, 1917-1957, New York, 1962;

R. Szporluk, Ukraine, a Brief History, Detroit, MI, 1982;

H.-J. Torke, J.P. Himka, eds., German-Ukrainian Relations in Historical Perspective, Edmonton, 1994;

O. Veselova, V. Marochko, O. Movchan, Holodomori v Ukraїni 1921-23, 1932-33, 1946-47, Kyїv, 2000.


DIc8. The Jewish Question

See the World War II chronological subsection below for works on the Holocaust.


Z. Gitelman, Jewish Nationality and Soviet Politics: The Jewish Section of the CPSU, 1917-1930, Princeton, 1972;

Z. Gitelman, A Century of Ambivalence: The Jews of Russia and the Soviet Union, 1881 to the present, Bloomington, 2001;

G. Kostyrchenko, Out of the Red Shadows: Anti-Semitism in Soviet Russia, Amherst, N. Y., 1995;

G.B. Kostyrchenko, Tainaia politika Stalina: vlastÕ i antisemitizm, Moscow, 2001 (perhaps the best book on the topic);

J.D. Klier et Sh. Lambroza, eds., Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History, Cambridge, 1992;

N. Levin, The Jews in the Soviet Union since 1917, New York, 1990;

B. Pinkus, The Soviet Government and the Jews, 1948-1967, Cambridge, 1984;

B. Pinkus, The Jews of the Soviet Union: The History of a National Minority, Cambridge, 1988;

S. Redlich, Together and Apart in Brzezany: Poles, Jews, and Ukrainians, 1919-1945, Bloomington, 2002;

Y. RoÕi, The Struggle for Soviet Jewish Emigration, 1948-1967, Cambridge, 1991;

A. Salomoni, Nazionalitˆ ebraica, cittadinanza sovietica, 1917-1948, Bologna, 2001;

S.M. SchwarzüThe Jews in the Soviet Union, New York, 1951;

A. Vaksberg, LÕ antisŽmitisme russe, Paris, 2002;

R. Weinberg, StalinÕs Forgotten Zion: Birobidzhan and the Making of a Soviet Jewish Homeland, Berkeley, 1998.


DII. General works on specific topics

Important documentary collections, memoirs, literary works and statistical collections are listed above in B. Sources. Works dealing with specific periods are listed below in the chronological subsections.


DIIa. Political memoirs and biographies


DIIa1. General

A. Khavin, U ruliia industrii, Moscow: Politizdat, 1968 (sketches of some of the most important Soviet  ŅbuildersÓ);

A. Lunacharsky, Revolutionary Silhouettes, New York, 1968 (interesting sketches of important leaders);

R. Medvedev, All StalinÕs Men, Oxford: Blackwell, 1983 (sketches of StalinÕs main cronies);

V. Medvedev, Dans lÕombre de Brejnev et de Gorbatchev: les derniers tsars rouges racontŽs par leur garde du corps, Paris 1988;

L. Trotsky, Portraits, Political and Personal, New York, 1977 (see also Politicheskie siluety, Moscow, 1926, 8th vol. of his Works);

D.A. Volkogonov, Autopsy for an Empire: The Seven Leaders Who Built the Soviet Regime, New York: Free Press, 1998 (effective portraits of Soviet leaders, from Lenin to Gorbachev); the longer Russian edition is SemÕ vozhdei:  Galereia liderov SSSR, 2 vol., Moscow, 1995;

B.D. Wolfe, Three Who Made a Revolution: A Biographical History, New York, 1948 (Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin).


DIIa2. By person

In alphabetical order. See also the memoirs and biographical dictionaries listed in B. Sources and C. Reference tools above.


Z. Medvedev, Andropov, New York, 1984;

R.A. Medvedev, Neizvestnyi Andropov: politicheskaia biografiia, Moscow, 1999

A. Antonov-Ovseenko, Beriia, Moscow, 1999;

S. Beria, Beria, My Father, London, 2001;

A. Knight, Beria, StalinÕs First Lieutenant, Princeton, 1993;

V.F. Nekrasov, ed., Beriia: konets karery, Moscow, 1991;

Ju.V. Aksiutin, ed., L.I. Brezhnev: materialy k biografii, Moscow, 1991 (useful);

E. Bacon, M. Sandle, eds., Brezhnev Reconsidered, New York: Palgrave, 2002;

V. Sheludko, ed., Leonid Brezhnev v vospominaniiakh, razmyshleniiakh, suzhdeniiakh, Rostov-na-Donu, 1998;

L. Brezhneva, The World I Left Behind: Pieces of a Past, New York: Random House, 1995;

A. Larina, This I Cannot Forget: The Memoirs of BukharinÕs Widow, New York, 1993;

S. Cohen, Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution: A Political Biography, 1888-1938, New York, 1975 (has been a very important book);

M. Kun, Bukharin, ego druzÕia i vragi, Moscow, 1992;

R.A. Medvedev, LichnostÕ i epokha: politicheskii portret L.I. Brezhneva, Moscow: Novosti, 1991;

I. Zemtsov, Chernenko: The Last Bolshevik, New Brunswick, NJ, 1989;

L. Aron, Yeltsin: A Revolutionary Life, London, 1999;

M. Jansen, N. Petrov, StalinÕs Loyal Executioner: PeopleÕs Commissar Nikolai Ezhov, 1895-1940, Stanford 2002;

A. Gromyko, Memoirs, New York, 1989;

T. Prymak, Mykhailo Hrushevsky: The Politics of National Culture, Toronto, 1987;

N. Jasny, To Live Long Enough, Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1976;

R. Abraham, Alexander Kerensky: The First Love of the Revolution, London, 1987;

V.I. GolÕdanskii, ed., I.B. Khariton: putÕ dlinoiu v vek, Moscow, 1999;

A. Kirilina, LÕAssassinat de Kirov: destin dÕun stalinien, 1888-1934, Paris: Ed. du Seuil, 1995;

Iu.V. Aksiutin, Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev: materialy k biografii, Moscow, 1989;

G.W. Breslauer, Khrushchev and Brezhnev as Leaders: Building Authority in Soviet Politics, Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1982;

E. Crankshaw, Khrushchev: A Career, New York, 1966;

S. Khrushchev, Khrushchev on Khrushchev, Boston, 1990;

S. Khrushchev, Nikita Khrushchev and the Creation of a Superpower, University Park, 2000;

R. and Z. Medvedev, Khrushchev: The Years in Power, Paris, 1977;

W. Taubman, S. Khrushchev, A. Gleason, eds., Nikita Khrushchev, New Haven, CT, 2000;

W. Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, New York: Norton, 2003 (an important book);

W.J. Tompson, Khrushchev: A Political Life, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1995;

A. M. Kollontai, Diplomaticheskie dnevniki, 1922-1940, 2 vols., Moscow, 2001;

B. Farnsworth, Aleksandra Kollontai: Socialism, Feminism, and the Bolshevik Revolution, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1980;

T.I. Fetisov, ed., PremÕer, izvestnyi i neizvestnyi: vospominaniia o A.N. Kosygine, Moscow, 1997;

T.E. OÕConnor, The Engineer of Revolution: L.B. Krasin and the Bolsheviks, 1870-1926, Westview, 1992;

S.S. Khromov, Leonid Krasin: neizvestnye stranitsy biografii, 1920-1926 gg., Moscow, In-t rossiiskoi istorii RAN, 2001;

H. Carrre dÕEncausse, LŽnine, Paris, Fayard, 1998;

L. Fischer, The Life of Lenin, New York, 1964;

Institut Marksizma-Leninizma, V.I. Lenin: biograficheskaia khronika, 12 vols., Moscow, 1970-1982;

M. Lewin, LeninÕs Last Struggle, New York, 1968;

R. Service, Lenin: A Political Life, 2 vols., London, 1985-1991;

N. Valentinov, Encounters with Lenin, New York, 1968 (interesting);

D.A. Volkogonov, Lenin: A New Biography, New York, 1994;

H.D. Phillips, Between the revolution and the West. A Political Biography of Maxim M. Litvinov, Boulder, 1992;

A.G. Malenkov, O moem ottse Georgii Malenkov, Moscow, 1992;

B. Gross, Willi MŸnzenberg: eine politische Biografie, Leipzig: Forum, 1991;

S. Koch, Double Lives: Stalin, Willi MŸnzenberg and the Seduction of the Intellectuals, London: HarperCollins, 1995;

O.V. Khlevniuk, In StalinÕs Shadow: The Career of ŅSergoÓ Ordzhonikidze (Moscow, 1993), Armonk, NY, 1995;

E. Heresch, Geheimakte Parvus: die gekaufte Revolution, Munich, 2000;

P.A. Zveteremich, Il grande Parvus, Milano: Garzanti, 1988 (an interesting reading);

A. Graziosi, G.L. Piatakov: A Mirror of Soviet History, in A. Graziosi, A New, Peculiar State, Westport, CT, 2000;

J.-F. Fayet, Karl Radek (1885-1939): biographie politique, Bern, Lang, 2004;

P. BrouŽ, Rakovsky ou la rŽvolution dans tous les pays, Paris: Fayard, 1996;
F. Conte, Christian Rakovski, 1873-1941: A Political Biography, Boulder, 1997;

Yu. Shapoval, ed., Petro Shelest: ŅSpravzhnij sud istori• shche popereduÓ, Kyiv, 2003;

A.N. Kolesnik, Khronika zhizni semi Stalina, CharÕkov, 1990;

W. Laqueur, Stalin: The Glasnost Revelations, London: Unwin Hyman, 1990;

L. Marcou, Staline, vie privŽe, Paris, 1996;

J.-J. Marie, Staline, Paris: Fayard, 2001;

A. Ostrovskii, Kto stoial za spinoi Stalina? Tainy revoliutsionnogo podpolÕia, Moscow: OLMA Press, 2002;

B. Souvarine, Stalin: A Critical Survey of Bolshevism (1935), New York, 1972 (an important book);

R.C. Tucker, Stalin as a Revolutionary, 1879-1929, New York, 1973 and Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above, 1928-1941, New York, 1990;

L.D. Trotsky, Stalin: An Appraisal of the Man and His Influence (1941), London, 1968;

A.B. Ulam, Stalin: The Man and His Era, Boston, 1989;

D.A. Volkogonov, Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy, New York, 1991;

A. Bennigsen, C. Lemercier-Quelquejay, Sultan-Galiev, le pre de la rŽvolution tiers-mondiste, Paris 1986 ;

R. Medvedev, D. Ermakov, ŅSeryi kardinalÓ: M.A. Suslov, Moscow: Respublika, 1992;

V.M. Tchernov (Chernov), Mes tribulations en Russie soviŽtique, Paris: I. Povolozky, (S. d.);

O.I. Gorelov, Tsugtsvang Mikhaila Tomskogo, Moscow, 1999;

P. BrouŽ, Trotsky, Paris: Fayard, 1988;

I. Deutscher, Trotsky, 3 vols., New York, 1954-1963 (important);

D.A. Volkogonov, Trotsky: The Eternal Revolutionary, New York, 1996;

A. Vaksberg, StalinÕs Prosecutor: The Life of Andrei Vyshinsky, New York, 1991;

M. Wolf, Man Without Face: The Autobiography of CommunismÕs Greatest Spymaster, London, 1997;

N. Zhordania, Moia zhiznÕ, Stanford, Cal.: The Hoover Institution, 1968;



DIIb. Political history, ideology

See also the chronological subdivision below. For instance, on Stalinism see the 1930s, WWII, and the postwar subsections.


R.R. Abramovitch, The Soviet Revolution 1917-1939, New York: International Universities Press, 1962;

M.S. Agurski, The Third Rome: National Bolshevism in the USSR, Boulder, CO., 1987;

D. Bell, ŅTen Theories in Search of Soviet RealityÓ, World Politics, 3 (1958);

N.A. BerdiaevLink, The Origin of Russian Communism, Ann Arbor, 1960 (a different perspective);

A. Besanon, The Rise of the GULag: Intellectual Origins of Leninism, New York, 1981;

A. Besanon, PrŽsent soviŽtique et passŽ russe, Paris: Hachette, 1986;

C. Bettelheim, Class Struggles in the USSR, 2 vols., New York, 1976-1978;

S. Bialer, StalinÕs Successors: Leadership, Stability, and Change in the Soviet Union, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980;

C.E. Black, T.P. Thornton, eds., Communism and Revolution: the Strategic Uses of Political Violence, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1964;

Z. Brzezinski, The Permanent Purge, Cambridge, MA, 1956;

Z. Brzezinski, Ideology and Power in Soviet Politics, New York: Praeger, 1967;

Z. Brzezinski, The Grand Failure: The Birth and Death of Communism in the Twentieth Century, New York: Collier Books, 1990;

H. Chambre, LՃvolution du marxisme soviŽtique, Paris: Seuil, 1974;

D. Colas, Le lŽninisme. Philosophie et sociologie politique du lŽninisme, Paris, 1982;

R.H.S. Crossman, ed., The God that Failed: Six Studies in Communism, London: Hamilton, 1950;

A. DÕAgostino, Marxism and the Russian Anarchists, S. Francisco, 1977;

A. DÕAgostino, Soviet Succession Struggles: From Lenin to Gorbachev, Allen and Unwin,1988;

A.B. Evans, Soviet Marxism-Leninism: The Decline of an Ideology, Westport, CT, 1993;

M. Fainsod, J. Hough, How Russia Is Governed, Cambridge, MA, 1979;

M. Fainsod, Smolensk under Soviet rule, Cambridge, MA, 1958 (a fundamental book);

M. Flores, LÕimmagine dellÕURSS: lÕoccidente e la Russia di Stalin, 1917-1956, Milano: Il Saggiatore, 1990;

T. Friedgut, Political Participation in the USSR, Princeton, 1979;

C.J. Friedrich, Z.K. Brzezinski, Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy, Cambridge, MA, 1956;

F. Furet, The Passing of an Illusion: The Idea of Communism in the Twentieth Century, Chicago, 1999;

M. Heller, Histoire de la Russie et de son empire, Paris: Plon 1997;

J. Hough, The Soviet Prefects, Cambridge, MA, 1969;

A. Gleason, Totalitarianism, New York, 1995 (very useful);

L.H. Haimson, The Mensheviks from the Revolution of 1917 to the Second World War, Chicago, 1974;

C. Ingerflom, Le Citoyen impossible: les racines russes du lŽninisme, Paris: Payot, 1988;

Institut Marksizma-Leninizma, Istoriia kommunisticheskoi partii Sovetskogo soiuza, 6 vols., Moscow, 1964-1976;

K. Jowitt, New World Disorder: The Leninist Extinction, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992 (an original perspective);

H. Kochanek, Die russisch-nationale Rechte von 1968 bis zum Ende der Sowjetunion, Stuttgart, 1999;

T. Kondratieva, Bolcheviks et jacobins: itinŽraire des analogies, Paris: Payot, 1989;

V.I. Kuptsova, ed., Stranitsy v istorii KPSS: fakty, problemy, uroki, 2 vols., Moscow, 1988-1989;

M. Lewin, Russia Š USSR Š Russia: The Drive and Drift of a Superstate, New York: New Press 1995;

A. Liebich, From the Other Shore: Russian Social Democracy after 1921, Cambridge, MA, 1997;

E. Mawdsley, S. White, The Soviet Elite from Lenin to Gorbachev: the CC and its members, Oxford, 2003;

M. Malia, The Soviet Tragedy: A History of Socialism in Russia, 1917-1991, New York, 1994;

H. Marcuse, Soviet Marxism: A Critical Analysis, New York, 1958;

N. Mitrokhin, Russkaia partiia. Dvizhenie russkikh natsionalistov v SSSR, 1953-1985, Moskva, 2003;

B. Moore, Jr., Soviet politics: the dilemma of power, New York: Harper & Row, 1965;

B.I. Nicolaevski, Power and the Soviet Elite, New York, 1965 (has been an important book);

A. Nove, ed., The Stalin Phenomenon, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1993;

A. Nove, Was Stalin Really Necessary?, London: Allen & Unwin, 1964;

T.H. Rigby, Communist Party Membership in the USSR, 1917-1967, Princeton, 1968;

L. Schapiro, The Communist Party of the Soviet Union, New York, 1970 (important);

P. SŽriot, Analyse du discours politique soviŽtique, Paris, 1985;

M. Shatz, Jan Wacław Machajski: A Radical Critic of the Russian Intelligentsia and Socialism, Pittsburgh, 1989;

B. Souvarine, A contre-courant. Ecrits 1925-1939, Paris, 1985;

N.S. Timasheff, The Great Retreat: The Growth and Decline of Communism in Russia, New York: E.P. Dutton & co., 1946 (important);

Tsarisme, Bolchevisme, Stalinisme: vingt regards dÕhistoriens, Paris: Institut dՎtudes slaves, 1990

A.B. Ulam, The Bolsheviks (1965), Cambridge, MA, 1998;

A.G. Vichnevski, La faucille et le rouble: la modernisation conservatrice en URSS, Paris: Gallimard, 2000;

A. Walicki, Marxism and the Leap to the Kingdom of Freedom : The Rise and Fall of the Communist Utopia, Stanford, 1995;

B. Wolfe, An Ideology in Power: Reflections on the Russian Revolution, New York, 1969;

V.V. Zhuravlev, VlastÕ i oppozitsiia: rossiiskii politicheskii protsess XX stoletiia, Moscow: Rosspen, 1995.



DIIc. Economics

See also the subsection on statistics in B. Sources, above.


DIIc1. Economic theory, economic thought

I. Birman, Ekonomika nedostach, New York, 1983 (important);

W. Brus, From Marx to the Market: Socialism in Search of an Economic System, Oxford, 1989;

W. Brus, Problmes gŽnŽraux du fonctionnement de lՎconomie socialiste, Paris, 1968;

B.D. Brutzkus, Economic Planning in Soviet Russia, London, 1935 (a fundamental book);

J.-M. Collette, Politique des investissements et calcul Žconomique: lÕexpŽrience soviŽtique, Paris: ƒditions Cujas, 1965;

D.C. Engerman, Modernization from the Other Shore: American Intellectuals and the Romance of Russian Development, Cambridge, MA, 2003;

F.A. von Hayek, ed., Collectivist Economic Planning: Critical Studies on the Possibilities of Socialism (1935), Clifton, NJ 1975 (important);

A. Katsenelinboigen, Soviet Economic Thought and Political Power in the USSR, New York: Pergamon Press, 1980;

J. Kornai, Economics of Shortage, Amsterdam, 1980 Šimportant, see also ŅShortage as a Fundamental Problem of the Centrally Planned EconomiesÉ (interview with J. Kornai),Ó Economics of Shortage, 3 (1982);

J. Kornai, The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism, Princeton, 1992;

V. Mau, The Political History of Economic Reform in Russia, 1985-1994, London, 1996 (an intelligent book);

L. von Mises, Die Gemeinwirtschaft: Untersuchungen Ÿber den Sozialismus, Jena: Fischer, 1922 (fundamental);

A. Nove, ed., Socialist Economics: Selected Readings, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972;

A. Nove, The Soviet Economic System, Boston, 1986;

G.E. Schroeder, ŅReflections on Economic Sovietology,Ó Post-Soviet Affairs, 11, 3 (1995);

A. Stanziani, LՎconomie en rŽvolution: le cas russe, 1870-1930, Paris: A. Michel, 1998;

P. Sutela, Socialism, Planning and Optimality: A Study in Soviet Economic Thought, Helsinki, 1984;

L. Szamuely, First Models of the Socialist Economic Systems, Budapest, 1974;

V. Treml, ed., Studies in Soviet Input-Output Analysis, New York: Praeger, 1977;

J.H. Wilhelm, ŅThe failure of the American sovietological economics profession,Ó Europe-Asia Studies, 55, 1 (2003): 59-74;

J. Winiecki, The Distorted World of Soviet-Type Economies, Routledge, 1988;

A. Zauberman, Mathematical Theory in Soviet Planning, Oxford, 1976.


DIIc2. National income

See also the already quoted CIAÕs Analysis of the Soviet Union 1947-91.


A.S. Becker, ŅIntelligence fiasco or reasoned accounting? CIA estimates of Soviet GNPÓ, Post-Soviet Affairs, 10, 4 (1994);

A. Bergson, The Real National Income of Soviet Russia Since 1928, Cambridge, MA, 1961;

A. Bergson, S. Kuznets, eds., Economic Trends in the Soviet Union, Cambridge, MA, 1963;

G.I. Khanin, Dinamika ekonomicheskogo razvitiia SSSR, Novosibirsk: Nauka 1991 Šan important book, see M. Harrison, ŅSoviet Economic Growth Since 1928: The Alternative Statistics of G.I. Khanin,Ó Europe-Asia Studies, 1 (1993);

ŅU.S. Assessment of the Soviet and Post-Soviet Russian Economy: Lessons Learned and Not Learned,Ó Colloque, Kennan Institute of Russian Studies, March 27-28, 2002 (papers available from the Kennan Institute);

A.L. Vainshtein, Narodnyi dokhod Rossii i SSSR, Moscow: Nauka, 1969.


DIIc3. Money

A.Z. Arnold, Banks, credit and money in Soviet Russia, New York: Columbia University Press, 1937;

I. Birman, Secret Incomes of the Soviet State Budget, The Hague, 1981;

G. Garvy, Money, Financial Flows, and Credit in the Soviet Union, Cambridge, MA, 1977;

F.D. Holzman, Soviet Taxation: The Fiscal and Monetary Problems of a Planned Economy, Cambridge, MA, 1955;

L.E. Hubbard, Soviet Money and Finance, London: Macmillan, 1936;

G.Y. Sokolnikov, ed., Soviet Policy in Public Finance, 1917-1928, Stanford, CA. 1931.


DIIc4. Economic policy, applied economics

J. Adam, Employment Policies in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, London: Macmillan, 1987;

A. Bergson, The Economics of Soviet Planning, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964;

J.S. Berliner, Factory and Manager in the USSR, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1957 (important);

J.S. Berliner, Soviet Industry from Stalin to Gorbachev, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988;

B. Chavance, Les rŽformes Žconomiques ˆ lÕest: de 1950 aux annŽes 1990, Paris, 1992;

J. Degras, A. Nove, eds., Soviet Planning: Essays in Honor of Naum Jasny, Oxford, 1964;

T. Dunmore, The Stalinist Command Economy, London, 1980;

D.A. Dyker, The Process of Investment in the Soviet Union, Cambridge, 1981;

M. Ellman, Socialist Planning, Cambridge, 1989;

D. Granick, The Managament of the Industrial Firm in the USSR: A Study in Soviet Economic Planning, New York: Columbia University Press, 1954;

D. Granick, The Red Executive, New York: Doubleday, 1960;

D.W. Green, C.I. Higgins, SOVMOD I. A Macro-econometric Model of the Soviet Economy, New York, 1977;

G. Grossman, ŅThe ŌSecond EconomyÕ of the USSR,Ó Problems of Communism, 5 (1977) Šstill the crucial essay;

T. Gustafson, Crisis Amid Plenty: The Politics of Soviet Energy under Brezhnev and Gorbachev, Princeton, 1989;

V. Holubnychi, Soviet Regional Economics, Edmonton, Alta., 1982;

F.D. Holzman, The Economics of Soviet Bloc Trade and Finance, Boulder, 1987;

A. Katsenelinboigen, ŅColoured Markets in the Soviet Union,Ó Soviet Studies, 1 (1977);

I.S. Koropeckyj, G.E. Schroeder, eds., The Economics of Soviet Regions, New York, NY: Praeger, 1981;

D. Lane, The Socialist Industrial State, London, 1976;

M. Lavigne, Les Žconomies socialistes soviŽtiques et europŽennes, Paris, 1979;

M. Lavigne, International Political Economy and Socialism, Cambridge, 1991;

M. Lewin, Political Undercurrents in Soviet Economic Debates: From Bukharin to the Modern Reformers, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974 (useful);

S.J. Linz, ed., The Soviet Economic Experiment, University of Illinois Press, 1990;

B. Madison, Social Welfare in the Soviet Union, Stanford, 1968;

A. McAuley, Economic Welfare in the Soviet Union: Poverty, Living Standards, and Inequality, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979;

S. Rosefielde, Economic Welfare and the Economics of Soviet Socialism: Essays in Honor of Abram Bergson, Cambridge, 1981;

H. Rosovsky, ed., Industrialization in Two Systems: Essays in Honor of Alexander Gerschenkron, New York: Wiley, 1966;

G. Sokoloff, LՃconomie obŽissante: dŽcision politiques et vie Žconomique en U.R.S.S., Paris: Calmann-LŽvy, 1976;

N. Spulber, ed., Soviet Strategy for Economic Growth, Bloomington, 1964 (a useful collection of Soviet texts from the 1920s);

S.G. Strumilin, Na planovom fronte, 1920-1930 gg., Moscow, 1958;

S.G. Strumilin, Problemy ekonomiki truda, Moscow, 1957.



DIId. Economic and social history

D.A. Baevskii, ed., Izmeneniia v chislennosti i sostave sovetskogo rabochego klassa, Moscow: Nauka, 1961;

A. Baykov, The Development of the Soviet Economic System, Cambridge, 1950;

C. Bettelheim, ed., LÕIndustrialisation de lÕU.R.S.S. dans les annŽes trente, Paris: ƒcole des hautes Žtudes en sciences sociales, 1982;

I. Birman, Personal Consumption in the USSR and the USA, New York, 1989;

W.L. Blackwell, ed., Russian Economic Development from Peter the Great to Stalin, New York, 1974;

P. Carrire, LՎconomie de lÕURSS, 3rd ed., Paris, 1984;

J. Chapman, Real Wages in Soviet Russia Since 1928, Cambridge, MA, 1963;

Cultures Žconomiques et politiques Žconomiques dans lÕEmpire tsariste et en URSS, 1861-1950, special issue, Cahiers du monde russe, 1-2 (1995);

R.W. Davies, ed., From Tsarism to the New Economic Policy: Continuity and Change in the Economy of the USSR, London: Macmillan Press, 1990;
R. W. Davies, Mark Harrison, S. G. Wheatcroft, eds., The Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union, 1913-1945, Cambridge: University Press, 1994 (useful);

G.A. Dikhtiar, Sovetskaia torgovlia v period postroeniia sotsializma, Moscow, 1961;

G.A. Dikhtiar, Sovetskaia torgovlia v period sotsializma, Moscow, 1965;

M. Dobb, Soviet Economic Development Since 1917, New York: International Publishers, 1967;

Z.M. Fallenbuchl, ed., Economic Development in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 2 vols., New York: Praeger, 1975-1976;

S. Fitzpatrick, Education and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union, 1921-1934, Cambridge University Press, 1979;

G. Friedmann, De la sainte Russie ˆ lÕU.R.S.S., Paris: Gallimard, 1938;

R. Girault, Emprunts russes et investissement franais en Russie, Paris, 1973;

P.R. Gregory, Before Command: An Economic History of Russia from Emancipation to the First Five-Year Plan, Princeton, 1994;

P.R. Gregory, Soviet and Post-Soviet Economic Structure and Performance, New York: HarperCollins, 1994;

P.R. Gregory, ed., Behind the Faade of Stalin's Command Economy: Evidence from the Soviet State and Party Archives, Stanford, 2001;

G. Guroff, F.V. Carstensen, eds., Entrepreneurship in Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union, Princeton, 1983;

P. Hanson, Rise and Fall of the Soviet Economy: An Economic History of the USSR, 1945-1991, London, 2003;

J. Hessler, A Social History of Soviet Trade: Trade Policy, Retail Practices, and Consumption, 1917-1953, Princeton, to be published (important);

A. Gerschenkron, Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962;

N. Jasny, Soviet Industrialization, 1928-1952, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961;

A.N. Malafeev, Istoriia tzenoobrazovaniia v SSSR, 1917-1963 gg., Moscow: MyslÕ, 1964;

B.N. Mironov, SotsialnÕaia istoriia SSSR, 2 vols., Spb, 1999;

R. Moorsteen, R. Powell, The Soviet Capital Stock, 1928-1962, Homewood, Ill.: Irwin, 1966;

P. Naville, Le nouveau lŽviathan: le salaire socialiste, 5 vols., Paris: Anthropos, 1970-1962;

A. Nove, An Economic History of the USSR, 1917-1991, 3rd ed., London: Penguin Books, 1992 (still important);

G.W. Nutter, Growth of Industrial Production in the Soviet Union, Princeton, 1962;

S.N. Prokopovicz, Histoire Žconomique de lÕU.R.S.S., Paris: Flammarion, 1952;

A.G. Rashin, Formirovanie rabochego klass v Rossii, Moscow, 1958;

J.-L. van Regemorter, DÕune perestro•ka ˆ lÕautre: lՎvolution Žconomique de la Russie de 1860 ˆ nos jours, Paris: SEDES, 1990;

J. Sapir, Les fluctuations Žconomiques en URSS, 1941-1985, Paris: Editions de lÕEHESS, 1988;

S. Schwarz, Labor in the Soviet Union, New York, 1951;

Le social en proie ˆ lՎtat soviŽtique, special issue, Le mouvement social, 196 (2001);

L.H. Siegelbaum, R.G. Suny, eds., Making Workers Soviet: Power, Class, and Identity, Ithaca, NY, 1994;

A.C. Sutton, Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development, 3 vols., Stanford, CA.: Hoover Institution, 1968-73;

S. Swianiewicz, Forced Labour and Economic Development: An Enquiry into the Experience of Soviet Industrialization, London: Oxford University Press, 1965;

I.Ia. Trifonov, Klassy i klassovaia borÕba v SSSR, Leningrad, 1964;

V.A. Vinogradov, ed., Istoriia sotsialisticheskoi ekonomiki SSSR, 7 vols., Moscow: Nauka, 1976-1980;

E. Zaleski, Planning for Economic Growth in the Soviet Union, 1918-1932, Chapel Hill, 1971;

E. Zaleski, Stalinist Planning for Economic Growth, 1933-1952, Chapel Hill, 1980 (important).



DIIe. Society, demography, social problems

See also the statistical subsection in B. Sources, above.


DIIe1. General

C. Black, ed., The Transformation of Russian Society: Aspects of Social Change since 1861, Cambridge, MA, 1960.

J. Brine, M. Perrie, A. Sutton, eds., Home, School, and Leisure in the Soviet Union, London, 1980;

W. Connor, Socialism, Politics and Equality: Hierarchy and Change in Eastern Europe and the USSR, New York: Columbia University Press, 1979;

M. Djilas, The New Class: An Analysis of the Communist System, London: Harcourt Brace Jonavich, 1985 (important);

A. Hegedus, The Structure of Socialist Society, London: Constable, 1977;

A. Inkeles, Social Change in Soviet Russia, Cambridge, MA, 1968;

A. Inkeles, R.A. Bauer, The Soviet Citizen: Daily Life in a Totalitarian Society, Cambridge, MA, 1959 (important);

E. Jones, F.W. Grupp, Modernization, Value Change and Fertility in the Soviet Union, Cambridge, 1987;

H. Kent Geiger, The Family in Soviet Russia, Cambridge, MA, 1968;

B. Kerblay, Modern Soviet Society, New York, 1983;

I. Kon, The Sexual Revolution in Russia, New York, 1995;

Y. Levada, LÕhomme soviŽtique ordinaire entre le passŽ et lÕavenir: enqute, Paris: Presses de la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques, 1993;

M. Matthews, Privilege in the Soviet Union, London, 1978;

M. Matthews, Poverty in the Soviet Union, Cambridge, 1986;

V.P. Popov, ŅPasportnaia sistema v SSSR (1932-1976)Ó, Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniia, 8-9 (1995);

S.L. Seniavskii, Izmeneniia v sotsialÕnoi strukture sovetskogo obshchestva, 1938-1970, Moscow: MyslÕ, 1973 (the official point of view);

S.L. Seniavskii, SotsialÕnaia struktura sovetskogo obshchestva v usloviiakh razvitogo sotsializma, 1961-1980 gg., Moscow: MyslÕ, 1982;

M. Voslensky, Nomenklatura: The Soviet Ruling Class, Garden City, NJ, 1984;

M. Yanowitch, Social and Economic Inequality in the USSR, White Plains, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1977;

M. Yanowitch, ed., Social Stratification and Mobility in the USSR, White Plains, NY: International Arts and Sciences Press, 1973.


DIIe2. Cities

T.J. Colton, Moscow: Governing the Socialist Metropolis, Cambridge, MA, 1995;

A. De Magistris, La costruzione della cittˆ totalitaria: il piano di Mosca e il dibattito sulla cittˆ sovietica tra gli anni venti e cinquanta, Milano, 1995;

R. French, I. Hamilton, eds., The Socialist City, New York: John Wiley, 1979;

C. Harris, Cities of the Soviet Union, Chicago, 1970;

A. Kopp, Town and Revolution: Soviet Architecture and City Planning, 1917-1935, New York, 1970;

A. Kopp, LÕArchitecture de la pŽriode stalinienne, Grenoble: Presses universitaires de Grenoble, 1978;

V. Papernyi, Architecture in the Age of Stalin: Culture Two, Cambridge, 2002;

R.H. Rowland, ŅRussiaÕs Secret Cities,Ó Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, 7 (1996);

B. Ruble, Leningrad: Shaping a Soviet City, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990;

O.I. Shkaratan, EtnosotsialÕnye problemy goroda, Moscow: Nauka, 1986;

W.C. Taubman, Governing Soviet Cities: Bureaucratic Politics and Urban Development in the USSR, New York, 1973.


DIIe3. Demography

S. Adamets, A. Blum, N. Zacharova, DisparitŽs et variables des catastrophes dŽmographiques en URSS, Paris: INED, 1994;

E.M. Andreev, L.E. Darskii, T.L. KharÕkova, Demograficheskaia istoriia Rossiiskoi federatsii, 1927-1959, Moscow: Informatika, 1998;

A. Blum, L.E. Darsky, Le modle soviŽtique (1917-1991) et ses devenirs, in J.P. Bardet, J. Dup‰quier (eds.), Histoire des populations de lÕEurope, t. III, Paris: Fayard, 1999;

A. Blum, Na”tre, vivre et mourir en URSS, 1917-1991, Paris: Plon, 1994;

V.A. Isupov, Demograficheskie katastrofy i krizisy v Rossii v pervoi polovine XX veka, Novosibirsk, 2000;

L.A. Kozinski, Demographic Developments in Eastern Europe, New York: Praeger, 1977;

R. Lewis, R. Rowland, R. Clen, Nationality and Population Change in Russia and the USSR: An Evaluation of Census Data, 1897-1970, New York: Praeger, 1976;

F. Lorimer, The Population of the Soviet Union: History and Prospects, Genve, 1946;

M. Maksudov, Poteri naseleniia SSSR, Benson, Vermont, 1989 (see ŅPertes subies par la population de lÕURSS, 1918-1958Ó, Cahiers du monde russe, 3 (1977));

F. MeslŽ et al., Tendances rŽcentes de la mortalitŽ par cause en Russie, 1965-1994, INED, Paris 1996;

Iu.A. Poliakov, ed., Naselenie Rossii v XX veke, vol. 1, 1900-1939 gg., vol. 2, 1940-1959 gg., Moscow, 2000-2001 (the reference work Švol. 3 is in the making);

M. Tolts, ŅThe Failure of Demographic Statistics: A Soviet Response to Population Troubles,Ó paper to the general conference of the Union internationale pour lՎtude scientifique de la population, Salvador-Bahia, Brazil, August 18-24, 2001.


DIIe4. Ecology

J. Dawson, Eco-Nationalism: Anti-Nuclear Activism and National Identity in Russia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, Durham, 1996;

M. Feshbach, Ecocide in the USSR: Health and Nature under Siege, New York: Basic Books, 1992;

M.I. Goldman, The Spoils of Progress: Environmental Pollution in the Soviet Union, Cambridge, MA, MIT press, 1972;

B. Komarov, The Destruction of Nature in the Soviet Union, White Plains, NY: Sharpe, 1980;

P.R. Pryde, Conservation in the Soviet Union, Cambridge, 1972;

P.R. Pryde, Environmental Management in the Soviet Union, Cambridge, 1991.

D.R. Weiner, A Little Corner of Freedom: Russian Nature Protection from Stalin to Gorbachev, Berkeley, 1999;

D.R. Weiner, Models of Nature: Ecology, Conservation and Cultural Revolution in Soviet Russia, Pittsburgh, Pa, 2000.


DIIe5. Labor

For the pre-war period see the chronological subdivision, below.


L. Cook, The Soviet Social Contract and Why It Failed: Welfare Policy and WorkersÕ Politics from Brezhnev to Yeltsin, Cambridge, MA, 1993;

D. Granick, Job Rights in the Soviet Union: Their Consequences, Cambridge, 1987;

A. Kahan, B. Ruble, eds., Industrial Labor in the USSR, New York: Pergamon, 1979;

D. Lane, F. OÕDell, The Soviet Industrial Worker, New York: St. MartinÕs Press, 1978;

D. Lane, ed., Labour and Employment in the USSR, Brighton: Wheatsheaf, 1986;

T. Lowit, Le Syndicalisme de type soviŽtique: lÕU.R.S.S. et les pays de lÕEst europŽen, Paris: A. Colin, 1971;

J. Sapir, Travail et travailleurs en URSS, Paris, 1983;

O.I. Shkaratan, Problemy sotsialÕni struktury rabochego klassa SSSR, Moscow: MyslÕ, 1970;

G. Victor, ŅSocial Security in the USSR,Ó International social security review, 4 (1991);

M. Yanowitch, Work in the Soviet Union, Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 1985.


DIIe6. Social problems

A. Ball, And Now My Soul Is Hardened: Abandoned Children in Soviet Russia, 1918-1930, Berkeley, 1994;

D. Caroli, LÕenfance abandonnŽe et dŽlinquante dans la Russie soviŽtique (1917-1937), Paris, 2004;

V. Chalidze, Criminal Russia, New York, 1977;

W.A. Clark, Crime and Punishment in Soviet Officialdom: Combating Corruption in the Political Elite, 1965-1990, Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 1993;

W. Connor, Deviance in Soviet Society, New York: Columbia University Press, 1972;

M.N. Gernet, Izbrannye proizvedeniia, Moscow, 1974 (the main student of crime in Tsarist Russia);

A.V. Ledeneva, RussiaÕs Economy of Favours: Blat, Networking, and Informal Exchanges, Cambridge, 1998;

L.L. Luneev, PrestupnostÕ XX veka: mirovye, regionalÕnye i rossiiskie tendentsii, Moscow: Norma 1997 (with important data);

B. Segal, The Drunken Society: Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Soviet Union, New York, 1990;

K. Simis, USSR: The Corrupt Society, New York, 1982 (impressive);

P.H. Solomon, Soviet Criminal Justice under Stalin, Cambridge, 1996;

V. Treml, Alcohol in the USSR, Duke University Press, 1982 (important);

A. Vaksberg, The Soviet Mafia, New York, 1991;

F. Varese, The Russian Mafia, Oxford, 2001;

I. Zemtsov, La Corruption en Union soviŽtique, Paris: Hachette, 1976.



DIIf. Women

D. Atkinson, A. Dallin, eds., Women in Russia, Stanford, 1978;

S. Bridger, Women in the Soviet Countryside: WomenÕs Role in Rural Development, Cambridge 1987;

G.K. Browning, Women and Politics in the USSR: Consciousness Raising and Soviet WomenÕs Groups, New York: St. MartinÕs Press, 1987;

B.E. Clements et al., eds., RussiaÕs Women: Accommodation, Resistance, Transformation, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991;

B.E. Clements, Daughters of Revolution: A History of Women in the USSR, Arlington Heights, IL: Harlan Davidson, Inc., 1994;

N.T. Dodge, Women in the Soviet Economy, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1966;

L. Edmondson, ed., Women and Society in Russia and the Soviet Union, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992;

B. Farnsworth, L. Viola, eds., Russian Peasant Women, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992;

S. Fitzpatrick, Y. Slezkine, eds., In the Shadow of Revolution: Life Stories of Russian Women from 1917 to the Second World War, Princeton, 2000;

W.Z. Goldman, Women, the State and Revolution: Soviet Family Policy and Social Life, 1917-1936, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993;

B. Holland, ed, Soviet Sisterhood, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985;

M. Ilic, Women Workers in the Soviet Interwar Economy: From ŌProtectionÕ to ŌEqualityÕ, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1999;

G.W. Lapidus, ed., Women, Work and Family in the Soviet Union, Armonk, NY, 1982;

G.W. Lapidus, Women in Soviet Society: Equality, Development and Social Change, Berkeley: UC Press, 1978;

T. Mamonova, ed., Women and Russia: Feminist Writings from the Soviet Union, Oxford, 1984;

R. Marsh, ed., Women in Russia and Ukraine, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996;

A. McAuley, WomenÕs Work and Wages in the Soviet Union, London: Allen & Unwin, 1981;

R. Stites, The WomenÕs Liberation Movement in Russia: Feminism, Nihilism, and Bolshevism, 1860-1930, Princeton, 1991;

L. Vasilieva, Kremlin Wives, New York, 1994.



DIIg. Peasants and the countryside

See the subsection on the 1930s, below, for works on collectivization and famine.


Iu.V. Arutiunian, La structure sociale de la population rurale en URSS, Cahiers ISMEA, 12 (1979);

R. Bartlett, ed., Land Commune and Peasant Community in Russia: Communal Forms in Imperial and Early Soviet Society, London: Macmillan, 1990;

F. Belov, The History of a Soviet Collective Farm, New York: Praeger, 1955;

S. Benet, ed., Village of Viriatino: An Ethnographic Study of a Russian Village, New York: Anchor Books, 1970;

R. Conquest, ed., Agricultural Workers in the USSR, New York, 1969;

T.M. Cox, Peasants, Class and Capitalism: The Rural Research of L.N. Kricman and His School, Oxford, 1986;

T.M. Cox, Rural Sociology in the Soviet Union, London: Hurst, 1979;

V.P. Danilov, Rural Russia under the New Regime, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988;

A. Graziosi, The Great Soviet Peasant War: Bolsheviks and Peasants, 1918-1933, Cambridge, MA, 1996;

N.A. Ivnitskii, Repressivnaia politika sovetskoi vlasti v derevne, 1928-33, Moscow, 2000 (important);

N. Jasny, The Socialized Agriculture of the USSR, Stanford, 1949;

Z.I. Kalugina, Lichnoe podsobnoe khoziaistvo v SSSR, Novosibirsk, 1991;

J.F. Karcz, The Economics of Communist Agriculture, International Development Institute, 1979;

B. Kerblay, LÕIzba dÕhier et dÕaujourdÕhui, Lausanne: LÕåge dÕhomme, 1973;

B. Kerblay, Du mir aux agrovilles, Paris: Institut dՎtudes slaves, 1985;

M.P. Kim, ed., Istoriia sovetskogo khrestÕianstva i kolkhoznogo stroitelÕstva v SSSR, Moscow, 1963;

M.-C. Maurel, La Campagne collectivisŽe: sociŽtŽ et espace rural en Russie, Paris: ƒditions Anthropos, 1980;

Z. Medvedev, Soviet Agriculture, New York: Norton, 1987 (an important book);

J.R. Millar, ed., The Soviet Rural Community, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971;

T. Shanin, The Awkward Class; Political Sociology of Ppeasantry in a Developing Society: Russia 1910-1925, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972;

G.I. Shmelev, Lichnoe podsobnoe khoziaistvo i ego sviazi s obshchestvennom proizvodstve, Moscow, 1971;

A.V. Chayanov, The Theory of Peasant Economy (1923), Homewood, IL., 1966 (important);

L.M. Timofeev, LÕarte del contadino di fare la fame, ovvero la tecnica del mercato nero in Russia, Bologna: Il Mulino 1983;

O.M. Verbitskaia, Rossiiskoe krestÕianstvo: ot Stalina k Khrushchevu, Moscow, 1992;

L. Volin, A Century of Russian Agriculture, Harvard University Press, 1970;

K.E. WŠdekin, The Private Sector in Soviet Agriculture, Berkeley, 1973;

K.E. WŠdekin, Agrarian Policies in Communist Europe: A Critical Introduction, The Hague: Nijhoff, 1981;

K.E. WŠdekin, Communist Agriculture: Farming in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, London: Routledge, 1990;

G. Yaney, The Urge to Mobilize: Agrarian Reform in Russia, 1861-1930, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982;

T.I. Zaslavskaia, Raspredelenie po trudu v kolkhozakh, Moscow: Ekonomika, 1966;

T.I. Zaslavskaia, ed., Migratsiia selÕskogo naseleniia, Moscow: MyslÕ, 1970.



DIIh. Repression and political police

See B. Sources, above, for the collections of documents published by Memorial Association as well as many of the memoirs and literary works. See also the chronological subsections below, especially, but not only, on the 1930s.


DIIh1. Repression


N.D. Adler, The Gulag Survivor: Beyond the Soviet System, Somerset, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2002;

G. Alexopoulos, StalinÕs Outcasts: Aliens, Citizens, and the Soviet States, 1926-1936, Ithaca, N.Y., 2003;

A.V. Antonov-Ovseenko Time of Stalin: Portrait of a Tiranny, New York, Harper & Row, 1981;

A. Applebaum, Gulag: A History, New York, 2003;

Jšrg Baberowski, Der rote Terror. Die Geschichte des Stalinismus, MŸnchen: Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, 2003;
F. Bettanin,
Il lungo terrore: politica e repressioni in URSS, 1917-1953, Editori riuniti: Roma, 1999;

N.F. Bugai, The Deportation of Peoples in the Soviet Union, New York, 1996;

N.F. Bugai, Kavkaz: narody v eshelonakh (20-60e gody), Moscow: Insan, 1998;

R. Conquest, Stalin: Breaker of Nations, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1991;
R. Conquest,
The Nation Killers: Soviet Deportation of Nationalities, Londres: Macmillan, 1970;

S. Courtois, ed., The Black Book of Communism, Cambridge, MA, 1999 (see Nicolas WerthÕs essay);

M. Craveri, Resistenza nel Gulag. Un capitolo inedito della destalinizzazione in Unione Sovietica, Soveria Mannelli, 2003;

D.J. Dallin, B.I. Nicolaevsky, Forced Labor in Soviet Russia, New Haven, 1947 (now surpassed, but the first important book on the topic);

E. Dundovich, F. Gori, E. Guercetti, Reflections on the Gulag, Milano, 2003;

J. Arch Getty, T. Rittersporn, V.N. Zemskov, ŅVictims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-War Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence,Ó The American Historical Review, 4 (1993);

P.R. Gregory, V. Lazarev, eds., The Economics of Forced Labor: The Soviet Gulag, Stanford, Hoover Institution Press, 2003;

G.M. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism: The GULag in the Soviet Totalitarian System (Moscow, 1997), Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 2000;

M. Jakobson, Origins of the GULag: The Soviet Prison Camp System, 1917-1933, Lexington: University of Kentucky, 1993;

R. Karklins, ŅThe Organization of Power in Soviet Labor Camps,Ó Soviet Studies, April (1989);

J.-J. Marie, Les peuples dŽportŽs dÕUnion soviŽtique, Bruxelles: Complexe, 1996;

T. Martin, ŅThe Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing,Ó The Journal of Modern History, 4 (1998) (an important essay);

G.P. Maximoff, The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia, Chicago, IL.: The Alexander Berkman Fund, 1940 (on the repression of the anticommunist left);

S.P. Melgunov, The Red Terror in Russia (1926), Westport, CT, 1975;

N. Naimark, Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe, Cambridge, MA, 2001;

A.E. GurÕianov, ed., Repressii protiv poliakov i polÕskikh grazhdan, Moscow, 1997;

J. Otto Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System: A Statistical History of Soviet Repression and Terror, 1930-1953, Jefferson N.C.: McFarland and Co., 1997 (a useful summary);


J. Otto Pohl, Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR, 1937-1949, Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999 (useful);

P. Polian, Against their will. The history and geography of forced migration in the USSR [2001], CEU Press, Budapest, 2003 (useful);

J. Rossi, The GULag Handbook: An Encyclopedia Dictionary, New York, 1989 (remarkable);

H. Schafranek, Zwischen NKWD und Gestapo, Franfurt am Main, 1990;

J.L. Schere, M. Jakobson, ŅThe Collectivization of Agriculture and the Soviet Prison Camp System,Ó Europe-Asia Studies, 3 (1993);

A. Solzhenitsyn, The GULag Archipelago: 1918-1956, An Experiment in Literary Investigation, London, 1974 (fundamental, of course);

K. Štajner, 7000 Days in Siberia, New York, 1988;

IRI, RAN, VlastÕ i obshchestvo v SSSR: Politika repressii (20-40-e gg.), Moscow, 2000;

S. Wheatcroft, ŅThe Scale and Nature of Nazi and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings, 1930-1945,Ó Europe-Asia Studies, 8 (1996) (interesting);

S. Wheatcroft, ŅVictims of Stalinism and the Soviet Secret Police: The Comparability and Reliability of the Archival Data,Ó Europe-Asia Studies, 2 (1999);

WomenÕs Voices from Soviet Labor Camps, Baltimore: Smoloskyp Publishers, 1975.


DIIh2. Political police

E. Albats, The State within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia, New York, 1994;

C. Andrew, O. Gordievsky, KGB: The Inside History of Its Foreign Operations, New York, 1990;

C. Andrew, V. Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB, New York, 1999 (important);

C. Andrew, V. Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Arkhive: The KGB in Europe and the West, London, 1999;

V.M. Chebrikov, ed., Istoriia sovetskikh organov gosudarstvennoi bezopasnosti, Moscow: KGB, 1977;

P. Dmitriev, ŅSoldat BeriiÓ. Vospominaniia lagernogo okhrannika, Leningrad, 1991 (describing some of the tortures inflicted upon prisoners);

J.J. Dziak, Chekisty: A History of the KGB, Lexington: Lexington Books, 1988;

V. Izmozik, Glaza i ushi rezhima: gosudarstvennyi politicheskii kontrolÕ za naseleniem sovetskoi Rossii v 1918-1928 godakh, St. Petersburg, 1995;

A. Knight, The KGB, Winchester, MA: Allen & Unwin, 1988;

A. Kokurin, N.V. Petrov, R.G. Pikhoia, eds., Lubianka: VChK-OGPU-NKVD-NKGB-MGB-MVD-KGB, 1917-1960: spravochnik, Moscow, 1997 (required reference);

G. Leggett, The Cheka: LeninÕs Political Police, New York: Oxford, 1981;

B. Levytsky, The Uses of Terror:The Soviet Secret Police, 1917-1970, New York, 1972;

V.V. Korovin, Istoriia otechestvennykh organov bezopastnosti, Moscow: Norma-Infa-M, 1998;

M. Parrish, Soviet Security and Intelligence Organizations, 1917-1990, New York, 1992;

N.V. Petrov, K.V. Skorkin, eds., Kto rukovodil NKVD, 1934-1941, Moscow, 1999;

La Police politique en Union soviŽtique, 1918-1953, special issue, Cahiers du monde russe, 2-4 (2001).



DIIi. Religion and church

See also above CII.b for the Modern Encyclopedia of Religions in Russia and the Soviet Union and DI. for works on the various nationalities (for instance DIc8. The Jewish Question).


DIIi1. General

J. Anderson, Religion, State, and Politics in the Soviet Union and Successor States, Cambridge, 1994;

J. Chafarevitsch, La LŽgislation sur la religion en U.R.S.S., Paris, 1973;

W.J. Ciszek, With God in Russia, New York, 1964;

W.B. Husband, ŅGodless communists:Ó Atheism and society in Soviet Russia, 1917-1932, Dekalb, IL., 2000;

D. Dunn, Religion and Modernization in the Soviet Union, Boulder, CO., 1977;

F. Heyer, Die orthodoxe Kirche in der Ukraine von 1917 bis 1945, Cologne, 1953;

G. Hosking, ed., Church, Nation and State in Russia and Ukraine, Basingstoke, 1991;

R. Marshall, ed., Aspects of Religion in the Soviet Union, 1917-1967, Chicago, 1971;

A. Martin, Les croyants en URSS, Paris, 1970;

M.I. Odintsov, Gosudarstvo i tserkovÕ v Rossii: XX vek, Moscow, 1994;

D. Peris, Storming the Heavens: The Soviet League of the Militant Godless, Ithaca, 1998;

S. Plokhy, F.E. Sysyn, Religion and Nation in Modern Ukraine, Toronto, 2001;

P. Ramet, Cross and Commissar: The Politics of Religion in Eastern Europe and the USSR, Bloomington, 1987;

S.P. Ramet, ed., Religious Policy in the Soviet Union, Cambridge, 1993;

N.A. Struve, Christians in Contemporary Russia, New York, 1967;

N.S. Timasheff, Religion in Soviet Russia, 1917-1942, New York, 1942;

V. Volkov, La secte russe des castrats, Paris, Ed. Les Belles Lettres, 1995 (Leningrad 1930), Introduction et notes par Claudio S. Ingerflom: Communistes contre Castrats (1929-1930). Les enjeux du conflit.


DIIi2. Various faiths

A. Bennigsen, C. Lemercier-Quelquejay, Islam in the Soviet Union, London, 1967;

A. Bennigsen, E.S. Wimbush, Muslims of the Soviet empire. A guide, Bloomington, 1986;

A. Bennigsen, Mystics and Commissars: Sufism in the Soviet Union, London, 1985;

B.R. Bociurkiw, The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and the Soviet State, 1939-1950, Edmonton, 1996;

T.A. Chumachenko, Church and State in Soviet Russia, 1941-1961 (Moscow, 1999), Armonk, NY, 2002;

F. Corley, ŅThe Armenian Church under the Soviet RegimeÓ, Religion, State, Society, 24-1 and 4 (1996), 26-3/4 (1998);

J. Ellis, The Russian Orthodox Church: A Contemporary History, London, 1988;

W.C. Fletcher, The Russian Orthodox Church Underground, 1917-1970, London, 1971;

W.C. Fletcher, A Study in Survival: The Church in Russia, 1917-1943, New York, 1975;

Z.Y. Gitelman, The Jewish Religion in the USSR, New York, 1971;

S. Keleher, Passion and Resurrection: The Greek Catholic Church in Soviet Ukraine, 1939-1989, Lviv, 1993;

A. Klibanov, Religioznoe sektanstvo i sovremmenostÕ, Moscow, 1969;

S.P. Poliakov, Everyday Islam: Religion and Tradition in Rural Central Asia, Armonk, NY, 1992;

D. Pospielovsky, The Orthodox Church in the History of Russia, Crestwood, NY, 1998;

B.G. Privratsky, Muslim Turkestan: Kazak Religion and Collective Memory, Richmond, Surrey, 2001;

L. RegelÕson, Tragediia russkoi tserkvi: 1917-1945, Paris, 1977;

Le RŽformisme musulman en Asie centrale, 1788-1937, special issue, Cahiers du monde russe, 1-2 (1996) ;

Y. RoÕi, Islam in the Soviet Union, from the Second World War to Gorbachev, New York, 2000 (see also D. Deweese, ŅIslam and the Legacy of Sovietology: A Review Essay on Yaacov RoÕiÕs Islam in the Soviet UnionJournal of Islamic Studies, 3 (2002));

S. Vardys, The Catholic Church: Dissent and Nationality in Soviet Lithuania, New York, 1979.



DIIj. Science, technology, culture, literary life

See also the documentary collections, the memoirs and the literary works quoted in B. above.


DIIj1. Science and technology

K. Bailes, Technology and Society under Lenin and Stalin: Origins of the Soviet Technical Intelligentsia, 1917-1941, Princeton, 1978;

M.R. Beissinger, Scientific Management, Socialist Discipline and Soviet Power, Cambridge, MA, 1988;

J.S. Berliner, The Innovation Decision in Soviet Industry, Cambridge, MA, 1976;

V.J. Birstein, The Perversion of Knowledge: The True Story of Soviet Science, Boulder, CO., 2001;

J.W. Boag et al., eds., Kapitza in Cambridge and Moscow: Life and Letters of a Russian Physicist, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1990;

S. Fortescue, Science Policy in the Soviet Union, London, 1990;

L.R. Graham, Science in Russia and the Soviet Union: A Short History, Cambridge, 1993;

L. Graham, ed., Science and the Soviet Social Order, Cambridge, MA, 1990;

J.J. Harford, Korolev: How One Man Masterminded the Soviet Drive to Beat America to the Moon, New York, 1997;

D. Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956, New Haven, 1994;

P.R. Josephson, New Atlantis Revisited: Akademgorodok, the Siberian City of Science, Princeton, 1997;

P.R. Josephson, Physics and Politics in Revolutionary Russia, Berkeley, 1991;

P.R. Josephson, Red Atom: RussiaÕs Nuclear Power Program from Stalin to Today, New York, 1999;

D. Joravsky, Soviet Marxism and Natural Science, 1917-1931, New York, 1961;

D. Joravsky, The Lysenko Affair, Cambridge, MA, 1970;

I.M. Khalatnikov, Landau, the Phycisist and the Man: Recollections, Pergamon Press, 1989;

R.A. Lewis, Science and Industrialization in the USSR: Industrial Research and Development, 1917-1940, London, 1979;

D.R. Marples, M.J. Young, eds., Nuclear Energy and Security in the Former Soviet Union, Boulder, CO., 1997;

Z.A. Medvedev, The Rise and Fall of T.D. Lysenko, New York, 1969;

Z.A. Medvedev, Soviet Science, Oxford, 1979;

B. Parrott, Politics and Technology in the Soviet Union, Cambridge, MA, 1985;

V.N. Soyfer, Lysenko and the Tragedy of Soviet Science, New Brunswick, NJ, 1994;

A. Vuchinich, Empire of Knowledge: The Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1917-1970), Berkeley, 1984.


DIIj2. Humanities

In alphabetical order of subject. For obvious reasons, history has been given prominence and precedence.


Regards sur lÕanthropologie soviŽtique, special issue, Cahiers du monde russe et soviŽtique, 2-3 (1990);

M. David-Fox, Revolution of the Mind: Higher Learning among the Bolsheviks, 1918-1929, Ithaca, NY, 1997;

S.P. Dunn, E. Dunn, eds., Introduction to Soviet Ethnography, 2 vols., Berkeley, 1974;

M.J. Bradshaw, The Soviet Union. A New Regional Geography, London, 1991;

H. Chambre, LÕAmŽnagement du territoire en U.R.S.S., Mouton 1959;

J.P. Cole, Geography of the USSR, Penguin, 1967;

J.C. Dewdney, Studies in Industrial Geography: The USSR, 1976;

P. George, LÕU.R.S.S., Paris, 1962;
L. Holzner, J.M. Knapp, eds.,
Soviet Geography Studies in Our Time: A Feistschrift for Paul E. Lydolph, Milwaukee, 1987;

D. Hooson, The Soviet Union: A Systematic Regional Geography, London, 1968;

A.N. Lavrishchev, Economic Geography of the USSR, Moscow, 1969;

P.E. Lydolph, Geography in the USSR, New York, 1980;

W.H. Parker, A Historical Geography of Russia, London, 1968;

W.H. Parker, The Soviet Union, London, 1969;

S.A. Aleksandrov, ed., Istoricheskaia nauka rossiiskoi emigratsii 20-30-kh gg.: khronika, Moscow, 1998;

G.D. Alekseeva , ed., Istoricheskaia nauka Rossii v XX veke, Moscow, 1997;

G.D. Alekseeva, Istoricheskaia nauka v Rossii. Ideologia. Politika. (60 Š 80-e gody XX veka), Moscow, IRI RAN, 2003;

S.H. Baron et C.A. Frierson, eds., Adventures in Russian Historical Research: Reminiscences of American Scholars from the Cold War to the Present, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2003;

S.I. Baron, N.W. Herr, Windows on the Russian Past. Essays on Soviet Historiography since Stalin, Columbus, Ohio, 1977;

G. Breslauer, ŅIn defense of Sovietology,Ó Post-Soviet Affairs, 3 (1992);

G.A. Bordiugov, ed., Istoricheskie issledovaniia v Rossii. Tendentsii poslednykh let, Moscow, 1996 (useful);

G.A. Bordiugov, ed., NatsionalÕnye istorii v sovetskom i postsovetskikh gosudarstvakh, Moscow, 1999 (useful);

S.F. Cohen, Rethinking the Soviet Experience, New York, 1985 (a flawed book);

M. Confino , ŅPresent Events and the Representation of the Past: Some Current Problems in Russian Historical Writing,Ó Cahiers du monde russe, XXXV, 4 (1994);

R.W. Davies, Soviet History in the Gorbachev Revolution, Bloomington, 1989;

R.W. Davies, Soviet History in the Yeltsin era, Basingstoke, 1997;

G.M. Enteen, The Soviet Scholar-Bureaucrat. M.N. Pokrovskii and the Society of Marxist Historians, London, 1978;

M.Ya. Gefter, Istoricheskaia nauka i nekotorye problemy sovremmenosti, Moscow, 1969;

M. Malia, ŅFrom under the Rubble, What?Ó Problems of Communism, 1-2 (1992);

R.D. Markwick, ŅCatalyst of Historiography, Marxism and Dissidence: The Sector of Methodology of the Institute of History, Soviet Academy of Sciences, 1964-1968,Ó Europe-Asia Studies, 46, 4 (1994);

K. Mehnert, Stalin versus Marx: The Stalinist Historical Doctrine, London, 1952;

I.I. Mints, Istoriografiia istorii SSSR, vol. 2: Epokha sotsializma, Moscow, 1982;

Problemy istoriografii i istochnikovedeniia istorii KPSS, Leningrad, 1973;

D.J. Raleigh, ed., Soviet Historians and Perestroika: The First Phase, New York, 1989;

K.F. Shteppa, Russian Historians and the Soviet State, New Brunswick, 1962 (a historianÕs interesting memoirs);

R. Szporluk, ed., M.N. Pokrovskii, Russia in World History. Selected Essays, Ann Arbor, MI, 1970;

L. Tillett, The Great Friendship: Soviet Historians on the Non-Russian Nationalities, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1969;

L.M. Zak, V.S. LelÕchuk, V.I. Pogudin, eds., StroitelÕstvo sotsializma v SSSR: istoriograficheskii ocherk, Moscow, 1971;

M.V. Zelenov, Apparat TsK RKP(b)-VKP(b), tsenzura i istoricheskaia nauka v 1920-e gody, N. Novgorod, 2000;

V.M. Alpatov, Istoriia odnogo mifa: Marr i Marrizm, Moscow, 1991;

W. Girke, H. Jachnow, Sowjetische Soziolinguistik: Probleme und Genese, Kronberg, 1974;

R. LÕHermitte, Marr, Marrisme, Marristes: une page de lÕhistoire de la linguistique soviŽtique, Paris, 1987;

Y. Slezkine, ŅN.Ia. Marr and the National Origins of Soviet Ethnogenetics,Ó Slavic Review, 4 (1996);

L.L. Thomas, The Linguistic Theories of N. Ja. Marr, Berkeley, 1957;

W.I. Butler, Soviet Law, London, 1983;

L.R. Graham, Science and Philosophy in the Soviet Union, New York, 1972;

E.J. Simmons, ed., Continuity and Change in Russian and Soviet Thought, Cambridge, MA, 1955;

E. van der Zweerde, Soviet Historiography of Philosophy, Dordrecht, 1997;

M.A. Miller, Freud and the Bolsheviks: Psychoanalysis in Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union, New Haven, 1998;

D. Joravsky, Russian Psychology: A Critical History, Oxford, 1989

J. Hough, The Soviet Union and Social Science Theory, Cambridge, MA,1977;

V. Shlapentokh, The Politics of Sociology in the Soviet Union, Boulder, 1987;

S.P. Dunn, ed., Sociology in the USSR: A Collection of Readings from Soviet Sources, White Plains, NY, 1969;

A. Blum, M. Mespoulet, LÕanarchie buraucratique: statistique et pouvoir sous Stalin, Paris, 2003;

M. Mespoulet, Statistique et rŽvolution en Russie: un compromis impossible, 1880-1930, Rennes, 2001.


DIIj3. Education

O. Anweiler, Geschichte der Schule und PŠdagogik in Russland, vom Ende des Zarenreiches bis zum Beginn der Stalin-€ra, Berlin, 1964;

G.Z.F. Bereday, ed., The Politics of Soviet Education, (1960) Westport, CT, 1976;

W. Berelowitch, La soviŽtisation de lՎcole russe: 1917-1931, Lausanne, 1990;

L. Gotovitch, Makarenko, pŽdagogue praticien, Paris, 1996;

K. Kobelt, Anton Makarenko, ein stalinischer PŠdagoge, Frankfurt am Main, 1996;

M. Matthews, Education in the Soviet Union: Policies and Institutions Since Stalin, London, 1982;

J. Pennar, I.I. Bakalo, G.Z.F. Bereday, Modernization and Diversity in Soviet Education,

New York, 1971.


DIIj4. Literary and cultural life

L. Alexeyeva, Soviet Dissent: Contemporary Movements for National, Religious and Human Rights, Middletown, 1985 (important);

D.L. Babichenko, Pisateli i tsenzory, Moscow, 1994;

D. Beyrau, Intelligenz und Dissens: die russischen Bildungsgeschichte in der Sowjetunion, 1917-1985, Gšttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1993;

A.V. Blium, Zensur in der UdSSR, 2 vols., Bochum, 1999;

G. Brook-Shepherd, The Storm Petrels: The Flight of the First Soviet Defectors, New York, 1977;

D. Brown, The Last Years of Soviet Russian Literature, 1975-1991, Cambridge, 1993;

J. Chiama, J.-F. Soulet, Histoire de la dissidence: oppositions et rŽvoltes en U.R.S.S. et dans les dŽmocraties populaires, de la mort de Staline ˆ nos jours, Paris, 1982;

C. Clark, The Soviet Novel: History as Ritual, Bloomington, 2000;

V. Dunham, In StalinÕs Time: Middle Class Values in Soviet Fiction, Cambridge, 1976;

W. Eggeling, Die sowjetische Literaturpolitik zwischen 1953 und 1970, Bochum, 1994;

K. Eimermacher, Die sowjetische Literaturpolitik, 1917-1932, Bochum, 1994;

V. Erlich, Modernism and Revolution: Russian Literature in Transition, Cambridge, MA, 1994;

T.M. Goriaeva, Politicheskaia tsenzura v SSSR, 1917-1991, Moscow, 2002 (interesting);

L. Hakobian, Music of the Soviet Age, 1917-1987, Stockholm, 1998;

M. Heller, Le monde concentrationnaire et la littŽrature soviŽtique, Lausanne, 1974;

R. Hingley, Russian Writers and Soviet Society, 1917-1978, New York, 1979;

B. Kagarlitsky, The Thinking Reed: Intellectuals and the Soviet State, 1917 to the Present, New York, 1988;

V. Lakshin, Solzhenitsyn, Tvardovsky and Novy Mir, Cambridge, MA, 1980;

F.C. Lemaire, La musique du XXe sicle en Russie et dans les anciennes rŽpubliques soviŽtiques, Paris, 1994;

F. Maes, Geschiedenis van de russische muziek, Nijmegen, 1996 (Berkeley, 2002);

R.J. Marsh, Soviet Fiction Since Stalin: Science, Politics, and Literature, London, 1986;

D.J. Richards, Soviet Chess: Chess and Communism in the U.S.S.R., Oxford, 1965;

V. Shlapentokh, Soviet Intellectuals and Political Power: the Post-Stalin era, Princeton, 1990;

A. Soltis, Soviet Chess, 1917-1991, McFarland, 2000;

G. Struve, Russian Literature under Lenin and Stalin, 1917-1953, Norman, 1971;

L. Trotsky, Literature and Revolution, Ann Arbor, 1960;

S. Volkov, Shostakhovich and Stalin, New York, 2004 (a controversial book);

M.P. Zezina, Sovetskaia khudozhestvennaia intelligentsiia i vlastÕ v 1950-1960-e gody, Moskva, 1999.


DIIj5. Mass culture

P. Arnaud, J. Riordan, eds., Sport and International Politics. The Impact of Fascism and Communism on Sport, London, 1998;

D. Brandenberger, National Bolshevism: Stalinist Mass Culture and the Formation of Modern Russian National Identity, 1931-1956, Cambridge, MA, 2002;

R. Edelman, Serious Fun: A History of Spectator Sport in the USSR, New York, 1993;

K. Feigelson, LÕU.R.S.S. et sa tŽlŽvision, Paris, 1990 ;

J. von Geldern, R. Stites, eds., Mass Culture in Soviet Russia: Tales, Poems, Songs, Movies, Plays and Folklore, 1917-1953, Bloomington, 1995;

M.S. Gleizer, Radio i televidenie v SSSR: daty i fakty, 1917-1986, Moscow, 1989;

S.B. Graham, A Cultural Analysis of the Russo-Soviet Anedokt, PhD Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 2003;

D.A. Harris, The Jokes of Oppression: The Humor of Soviet Jews, Northvale, N.J, 1988;

P. Kenez, The Birth of the Propaganda State: Soviet Methods of Mass Mobilization, 1917-1929, Cambridge, 1985;

N. Laurent, LÕoeil du Kremlin: cinŽma et censure en URSS sous Staline, 1928-1953, Toulouse, 2000;

J. Leyda, Kino: A History of the Russian and Soviet Film, 3rd edition, Princeton, N.J., 1983;

G. Liber, Alexander Dovzhenko : A life in Soviet Film, London, 2002;

D. MacFayden, Red Stars: Personality and the Soviet Popular Song, 1955-1991, Montreal, 2001;

M. Martin, Le cinŽma soviŽtique de Khrouchtchev ˆ Gorbatchev: 1955-1992, Lausanne, 1993;

J. Riordan, Sport in Soviet Society. Development of Sport and Physical Education in Russia and the USSR, Cambridge, 1977;

J. Riordan, Sport, Politics and Communism, Manchester, 1991;

R. Stites, Russian Popular Culture: Entertainment and Society since 1900, Cambridge, 1992;
A. Troitsky, Back in the USSR: The True Story of Rock in Russia, Boston, 1988;

N. Tumarkin, The Living and the Dead: The Rise and Fall of the Cult of World War II in Russia, New York, 1994;

N. Tumarkin, Lenin Lives! The Lenin Cult in Soviet Russia, Cambridge, MA, 1997;

W. Veryha, Communication Media and Soviet Nationality Policy: Status of National Languages in Soviet TV Broadcasting, New York, 1972.



DIIk. Foreign policy

See also the diplomatic documents collections listed in section B above. Works on specific periods are listed in the chronological subsections below.


DIIk1. Relations with the West, Cold War

L. Alexeyeva, U.S. Broadcasting to the Soviet Union, New York, 1986;

J. Attali, Verbatim, chronique des annŽes 1981-1991, 3 vols., Paris, 1995-1998;

R.L. Benson, M. Warner, eds., Venona: Soviet Espionage and the American Response 1939-1957, Washington, DC, 1996;

G. Brook-Shepherd, The Storm Petrels: The Flight of the First Soviet Defectors, New York, 1977;

E.H. Carr, German-Soviet Relations between the Two World Wars, Baltimore, 1951;

D. Caute, Les compagnons de route, 1917-1968, Paris, 1979;

Cold War Flashpoints, Cold War International History Project, Bulletin, 11 (1998) (remarkable);

R. Crockatt, The Fifty Years War: The United Stated and The Soviet Union in World Politics, 1941-1991, London, 1995;

P. Devilliers, Guerre ou paix: une interprŽtation de la politique extŽrieure soviŽtique depuis 1944, Paris, 1979;

J.-B. Duroselle, LÕEurope de 1815 ˆ nos jours: vie politique et relations internationales, Paris, 2002

L. Fischer, The Soviets in World Affairs, a History of the Relations between the Soviet Union and the Rest of the World, 1917-1929 (1930), New York, 1960;

P.G. Filene, Americans and the Soviet Experiment, 1917-1930, Cambridge, MA, 1937;

A. Fontaine, History of the Cold War, 2 vols., New York, 1968-1969;

B. Frankel, ed., The Cold War, 1945-1991, 3 vols., Detroit, 1992;

V.P. Gruzinov, The USSRÕs Management of Foreign Trade, White Plains, NY, 1979;

J.L. Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History, Oxford, 1997;

G. Gorodetsky, ed., Soviet Foreign policy 1917-1991. A Retrospective, London, Frank Cass, 1994;

J.G. Hershberg, ed., Cold War Crises, Cold War International History Project, Bulletin, 5-7 (1995) (remarkable);

P. Hollander, Political Pilgrims: Travels of Western Intellectuals to the Soviet Union, China and Cuba, 1928-1978, Oxford, 1981;

J. Kayser, De Kronstadt ˆ Khrouchtchev: voyages franco-russes, 1891-1960, Paris, 1962;

C. Kennedy-Pipe, Russia and the World, 1917-1991, London, 1998;

G.F. Kennan, Russia and the West under Lenin and Stalin, Boston, 1961;

G.F. Kennan, The Nuclear Delusion: Soviet-American Relations in the Atomic Age, New York, 1982;

S. Koch, Double Lives: Spies and Writers in the Secret Soviet War of Ideas against the West, New York, 1994;

M. Kramer, ŅIdeology and the Cold War,Ó Review of International Studies, 4 (1999);

F. Kupferman, Au pays des Soviets: le voyage franais en Union SoviŽtique, 1917-1939, Paris, 1979;

J. Laloy, La politique extŽrieure de lÕURSS, 1917-1975, Paris, 1960;

J. Laloy, Entre guerre et paix, 1945-1965, Paris, 1966;

I. Lederer, ed., Russian Foreign Policy: Essays in Historical Perspective, New Haven, CT, 1962;

V.S. LelÕchuk, E.I. Pivovar, eds., SSSR i kholodnaia voina, Moscow, 1995;

R.B. Levering et al., Debating the Origins of the Cold War: American and Russian Perspectives, Lanham, Md., 2002;

J. LŽvesque, LÕURSS et sa politique internationale, de LŽnine ˆ Gorbatchev, 2nd ed., Paris, 1987;

S. R. Margulies, The Pilgrimage to Russia: The Soviet Union and the Treatment of Foreigners, 1924-1937, Madison, Wisconsin, 1968;

G. Mitrovich, Undermining the Kremlin: AmericaÕs Strategy to Subvert the Soviet Bloc, Ithaca, N.Y., 2000;

M. Mourin, Les relations franco-soviŽtiques, Paris, 1967;

D.E. Murphy, S.A. Kondrashev, G. Bailey, Battleground Berlin: CIA vs. KGB in the Cold War, New Haven, 1997;

A. Nekrich, Pariahs, Partners, Predators: German-Soviet Relations, 1922-1941, New York, 1997;

H.-J. Perrey, Der Russlandausschuss der Deutschen Wirtschaft, Munich, 1985;

A. Pittman, From Ostpolitik to Reunification: West-German Š Soviet Political Relations Since 1974, Cambridge, 1992;

V. Peppard, J. Riordan, Playing Politics: Soviet Sport Diplomacy, Greenwich, CT, 1993;

E.M. Primakov, ed., Ocherki istorii rossiiskoi vneshnei razvedki, 6 vols., Moscow, 1996;
Y. Richmond,
Cultural Exchange and the Cold War: Raising the Iron Curtain, University Park, 2003;

A.G. SavelÕev, N. Detinov, The Big Five: Arms Control Decision Making in the Soviet Union, Wesport, CT, 1995;

I.G. Starinov, Over the Abyss: My Life in Soviet Special Operations, New York, 1995;

M. Tatu, Eux et nous: les relations Est-Ouest entre deux dŽtentes, Paris, 1985;

E.S. Tokareva, ed., Rossiia i Vatikan v kontse XIX Š pervoi treti XX veka. Materialy kollokviuma, Moscow, 2003;

A.B. Ulam, Expansion and Coexistence: Soviet Foreign Policy, 1917-1973, New York, 1974;

A. Weinstein, A. Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (The Stalin Era), New York, 1999;

V. Zubok et C. Pleshakov, Inside the KremlinÕs Cold War: from Stalin to Khrushchev, Cambridge, MA, 1996.


DIIk2. Socialist countries, Communist parties

See also the chronological subsections for the crises of 1953, 1956, 1968, etc.


DIIk2a. Comintern and Cominform

G.M. Adibekov, Kominform i poslevoennaia Evropa, 1947-1956, Moscow, 1994;

F. Borkenau, The Communist International, (1939) Ann Arbor, 1962 (remarkable);

P. BrouŽ, Histoire de lÕInternationale communiste, 1919-1943, Paris, 1997;

F. Claud’n, La crise du mouvement communiste: du Komintern au Kominform, 2 vols., Paris, 1972;

M. H‡jek, Storia dellÕInternazionale comunista (1921-1935) (Praha, 1969), Roma, 1969;

Istoriia Kommunisticheskogo Internatsionala 1919-1943. DokumentalÕnye ocherki, Moscow, Nauka, 2002;

B.M. Lazic, Biographical Dictionary of the Comintern, Stanford, 1986;

L. Marcou, Le Kominform: le communisme de guerre froide, Paris, 1977;

K. McDermott, J. Agnew, The Comintern: A History of International Communism from Lenin to Stalin, Basingstoke, 1996;

K.E. McKenzie, Comitern and World Revolution, 1928-1943, New York, 1963;

M. Narinsky, J. Rojahn, eds., Centre and Periphery. The History of the Comintern in the Light of New Documents, Amsterdam, 1996.


DIIk2b. Socialist countries, general


DIIk2b1. Eastern Europe

O. Arne Westad, ed., The Soviet Union in Eastern Europe, 1945-1989, New York, 1994;

I.T. Berend, Central and Eastern Europe, 1944-1993. Detour from the Periphery to the Periphery,  Cambridge, 1996;

W. Brus, Histoire Žconomique de lÕEurope de lÕEst, 1945-1985, Paris, 1986

Z.K. Brzezinski, The Soviet Bloc: Unity and Conflict, Cambridge, MA, 1967;

H. CarrŽre dÕEncausse, The Big Brother: Soviet Union and Soviet Europe, New York, 1987;

A. Dubček, Hope Dies Last, New York, 1993;

F. Fejto, Histoire des dŽmocraties populaires, revised ed., 2 vols., Genve, 1992 (New York, 1971);

R.O. Freedman, Economic Warfare in the Communist Bloc: A Study of Soviet Economic Pressure against Yugoslavia, Albania and Communist China, New York, 1970;

M. Kaser, COMECON: Integration Problems of the Planned Economies, London, 1967;

M.C. Kaser, ed., The Economic History of Eastern Europe, 1919-1975, 3 vols., Oxford, 1985;

M. Kramer, From Dominance to Hegemony to Collapse: Soviet Policy in East-Central Europe, 1945-1991, Oxford University Press, forthcoming;

Leadership Transition in a Fractured Bloc, Cold War International History Project, Bulletin, 10 (1998);

P. Marer, Soviet and East-European Trade (1946-1969): Statistical Compendium and Guide, Bloomington, 1972;

M. Marrese, J. Vanous, Soviet Subsidization of Trade with Eastern Europe: A Soviet Perspective, Berkeley, 1983;

D.S. Mason, Revolution in East-Central Europe: The Rise and Fall of Communism and the Cold War, Boulder, CO., 1992;

R. Szporluk, ed., The Influence of East Europe and the Soviet West on the USSR, New York, 1976;

S.M. Terry, ed., Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe, New Haven, 1984;

T. Torańska, ŅThem:Ó StalinÕs Polish Puppets, New York, 1987 (an interesting reading);

G.R. Urban, Radio Free Europe and the Pursuit of Democracy: My War within the Cold War, New Haven, 1998;

T.V. Volokitina et al., Moskva i vostochnaia Evropa: stanovlenie politicheskikh rezhimov sovetskogo tipa, 1945-1953, Moscow, 2002.


DIIk2b2. Asia

A. Akram, Histoire de la guerre dÕAfghanistan, Paris, 1996;

G.H. Chang, Friends and Enemies: The United States, China, and the Soviet Union, 1948-1972, Stanford, CA., 1990;

W.C. Clemens Jr., The Arms Race and Sino-Soviet Relations, Stanford, 1968;
The Cold War in Asia, Cold War International History Project, Bulletin, 6-7 (1996);

L. Dittmer, Sino-Soviet Normalization and Its International Implications, 1945- 1990, Seattle, 1992;
P.J.S. Duncan,
The Soviet Union and India, London, 1989;

F. Fejto, Chine-U.R.S.S.: de lÕalliance au conflit, 1950-1977, revised ed., Paris, 1978;

H. Kimura, Distant Neighbors, vol. 1, Japanese-Russian Relations under Brezhnev and Andropov and vol. 2, Japanese-Russian Relations under Gorbachev and Yeltsin, Armonk, 2000;

A.M. Ledovskii, SSSR i Stalin v sudÕbakh Kitaia. Dokumenty i svidetelÕstva, 1937-52, Moscow, 1999;

J. LŽvesque, LÕURSS en Afghanistan: 1979-1989, Bruxelles, 1990;

L. Luthi, ŅThe Sino-Soviet Split, 1956-1966Ó, Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 2003;

G.F. Hudson, R. Lowenthal, R. MacFarquhar, The Sino-Soviet Dispute, New York, 1961 (the first important book on the topic);

N.L. Mamaieva, Komintern i Gomindan, 1919-1929, Moscow, 1999;

H.W. Nelsen, Power and Insecurity: Beijing, Moscow, and Washington, 1949-1988, Boulder, 1989;

A. Pantsov, The Bolsheviks and the Chinese Revolution, 1919-1927, Honolulu, 2000;

R.S. Ross, ed., China, the United States, and the Soviet Union: Tripolarity and Policy Making in
the Cold War
, Armonk, NY, 1993;
Russian General Staff,
The Soviet Afghan War, Lawrence, 2002;

O. Arne Westad, ed., Brothers in Arms: The Rise and Fall of the Sino-Soviet alliance, 1945-1963,
Washington, D. C., 1998;
D.Z. Zagoria,
The Sino-Soviet Conflict, 1956-1961, Princeton, 1962.


DIIk2b3. Cuba and Africa

G.W. Breslauer, ed., Soviet Policy in Africa, Berkeley, 1992;

M.N. Katz, ed. The USSR and Marxist Revolutions in the Third World, New York, 1990;

J. LŽvesque, The USSR and the Cuban Revolution, New York, 1978;

W. Raymond Duncan, The Soviet Union and Cuba, New York, 1985.


DIIk3. Third World (other)

Q.V.S. Bach, Soviet Economic Assistance to the Less Developed Countries: A Statistical Analysis, Oxford, 1987;

A. Bennigsen, S.E. Wimbush, Muslim National Communism in the Soviet Union: A Revolutionary Strategy for the Colonial World, Chicago, 1979;

G.W. Breslauer, Soviet Strategy in the Middle East, Boston, 1990;

The Cold War in the Third World, Cold War International History Project, Bulletin, 8-9 (1997);

M. Confino, S. Samir, eds., The USSR and the Middle East, New York, 1973;

A. Dawisha, K. Dawisha, eds., The Soviet Union and the Middle East, New York, 1982;

M.I. Goldman, Foreign Soviet Aid, New York, 1967;

M. Heikal, Sphinx and Commissar: The Rise and Fall of Soviet Influence in the Arab World, London, 1978;

E. Korbonski, F. Fukuyama, eds., The Soviet Union and the Third World: The Last Three Decades, Ithaca, NY, 1987;

B.R. Kuniholm, The Origins of the Cold War in the Near East, Princeton, 1980;

R. Menon, Soviet Power and the Third World, New Haven, 1986;

Soviet volunteers in China, 1925-1945, Moscow, 1980;

T. Ter Minassian, Colporteurs du Komintern: lÕUnion soviŽtique et les minoritŽs au Moyen-Orient, Paris, 1997;



DIIl. The Military

K. Alibek, Biohazard, New York, 1999;

J. Barber, M. Harrison, eds., The Soviet Defence-Industry Complex from Stalin to Khrushchev, New York, 2000;

R.F. Baumann, Soviet Unconventional Wars in the Caucaus, Central Asia, and Afghanistan, Fort Leavenworth, 1993;

I.V. Bystrova, Voenno-promyshlennyi kompleks SSSR v gody kholodnoi voiny, Moscow, 2000 (important);

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Estimates on Soviet Military Power, 1954 to 1984: A Selection, Washington, DC, 1994;

T.J. Colton, Commissars, Commanders and Civilian Authority, Cambridge, MA, 1979;

J. Erickson, The Soviet High Command: a Political-Military History, 1918-1941 (1962), London , 2001;

R.L. Garthoff, Soviet Military Policy: A Historical Analysis, New York, 1966;

D.M. Glantz, Soviet Military Intelligence in War, London, 1990;

M. Von Hagen, Soldiers in the Proletarian Dictatorship: The Red Army and the Soviet Socialist state, 1917-1930, Ithaca, NY, 1990;

D. Holloway, The Soviet Union and the Arms Race, New Haven, 1984;

D.R. Jones, The Military-Naval Encyclopedia of Russia and the Soviet Union, Gulf Breeze, 1978;

M. McIntosh, Juggernaut: A History of the Soviet Armed Forces, New York, 1968 (important);

T.M. Nichols, The Sacred Cause: Civil-Military Conflict over Soviet National Security, 1917-1992, Ithaca, NY, 1993;

P. Podvig, Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces, Cambridge, MA, 2001;

R. Reese, A Social History of the Red Army, 1925-1941, Kansas University Press, 1998;

H.S. Rowen, C. Wolf, Jr, eds., The Impoverished Superpower: Perestroika and the Soviet Military Burden, San Francisco, 1990;

J. Sapir, The Soviet Military System, Cambridge, 2001;

H. Shukman, ed., StalinÕs Generals, New York, 1993;

N.S. Simonov, Voenno-promyshlennyi kompleks SSSR v 1920-1950-e gody, Moscow, 1996;

N. Sokov, Russian Strategic Modernization:  The Past and Future, Boulder, 2000;

V. Starodubov, Superderzhavy XX veka, Moscow, 2001;

P. de Villemarest, G.R.U.--Le plus secret des services soviŽtiques, 1918-1988, Paris, 1988.

DIII. Works on specific periods

Especially, but not only, for works about society, nationalities, and the countryside see also the thematic subsections above, as well as memoirs, literary works and statistics in section B.


DIIIa. War, revolution, civil war, 1914-1922


DIIIa1. General works

A.S. Bubnov, S.S. Kamenev, R.P. Eideman, eds., Grazhdanskaia voina, 1918-1921, 3 vols., Moscow, 1928;

J. Burbank, Intelligentsia and Revolution: Russian Views of Bolshevism, 1917-1922, Oxford, 1986;

E.H. Carr, The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917-1923, 3 vols., London, 1950-53 (important, of course);
W.H. Chamberlin, The Russian Revolution, 1917-1921, (1935) Princeton, 1987 (still the best, perhaps);

E. Cinnella, La tragedia della rivoluzione russa: 1917-1921, Milano: Luni, 2000;

M. Ferro, The Bolshevik Revolution, London, 1980;

O. Figes, A peopleÕs Tragedy: The Russian Revolution, 1894-1921, London, 1998;

M. Gorki et al., eds., The History of the Civil War in the USSR, Moscow, 1946;

Guerre, guerres civiles et conflits nationaux dans lÕEmpire russe et en Russie soviŽtique, special issue, Cahiers du monde russe, 1-2 (1997);

P. Holquist, Making War, Forging Revolution: RussiaÕs Continuum of Crisis, 1914-1921, Cambridge, MA, 2002;

E. Mawdsley, The Russian Civil War, Boston, 1987;

J. Martov, Le Bolchevisme mondial (1923), Paris: Nouveau PromŽthŽe, 1934;

R. Pipes, The Russian Revolution, 1899-1919, London, 1997;

R. Pipes, Russia under the Bolshevik Regime, 1919-1924, New York, 1994;

H. Shukman, ed., The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the Russian Revolution, Oxford, 1988;

L.D. Trotsky, The History of the Russian Revolution (1932), New York, 1980;

E. Acton, V.Iu. Cherniaev, W.G. Rosenberg, Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution, 1914-1921, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997.


DIIIa2. World War I

A.N. Antsyferov, Russian Agriculture During the War, New York: Yale University press, 1930;

P. Gatrell, A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia During World War I, Bloomington, IN., 1999;

S.M. Horak, The First Treaty of World War I: UkraineÕs Treaty with the Central Powers of February 9, 1918, New York: Columbia University Press, 1988;

N.D. KondratÕev, Rynok khlebov i ego regulirovanie vo vremia voiny i revoliutsii (1922), Moscow, 1991 (a classic, by the great economist purged in the 1930s Šsee now his Works, 4 vols., London, 1998);

E. Lohr, Nationalizing the Russian Empire: The Campaign against Enemy Aliens During World War I, Cambridge, MA, 2003;

N. Stone, The Eastern Front, 1914-1917, New York: Scribner, 1975;

A.K. Wildman, The End of the Russian Imperial Army, 2 vols., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980-1987.

DIIIa3. 1917

E.N. Burdzhalov, RussiaÕs Second Revolution: The February 1917 Uprising in Petrograd, Bloomington, 1987;

E. Frankel, J. Frankel, B. Knei-Paz, eds., Revolution in Russia: Reassessments of 1917, Cambridge, 1992;

M.S. Frenkin, Russkaia armiia i revoliutsiia, 1917-1918, Munich: Logos, 1978;

M. Gorky, Untimely Thoughts: 1917-1918, New Haven, 1995;

G. Katkov, Russia 1917: The February Revolution, London: Collins, 1969;

D. Koenker, Moscow Workers and the 1917 Revolution, Princeton 1981;

V. Manilov, ed., 1917 god na Kievshchine: khronika sobitii, Kiev, 1928 (a valuable chronology. In the 1920s several of such chronologies of events in the countryÕs major centers were published);

I.I. Mints, ed., Istoria velikogo Oktiabria, 3 vols., Moscow, 1967-1973 (the official point of view);

A. Rabinowitch, Prelude to Revolution: The Petrograd Bolsheviks and the July 1917 Uprising, Bloomington, 1968;

A. Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, New York, 1976;

O. Radkey, The Election to the Russian Constituent Assembly of 1917, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1950;

L. Schapiro, The Russian Revolutions of 1917: The Origins of Modern Communism, New York, 1984;

S.A. Smith, Red Petrograd: Revolution in the Factories, 1917-1918, Cambridge, 1983;

M.D. Steinberg, ed., Voices of Revolution, 1917, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.


DIIIa4. Guerre civile, communisme de guerre, crise de 1921-22

S. Adamets, Guerre civile et famine en Russie. Le pouvoir bolchŽvique et la population face ˆ la catastrophe dŽmographique de 1917-1923, Paris 2003 ;

P. Avrich, Kronstadt, 1921, Princeton, 1970;

P. Avrich, ed., The Anarchists in the Russian Revolution, Ithaca, N.Y., 1973;  

N. Baron, P. Gatrell, Homelands: War, Population and Statehood in Eastern Europe and Russia, 1918-1924, London, 2004;

F. Benvenuti, The Bolsheviks and the Red Army, 1918-1922, Cambridge, 1987;

M. Body, Les Groupes communistes franais de Russie: 1918-1921, Paris, 1988;

G. Bordiugov, A.I. Ushakov, V.Iu. Churakov, Beloe delo: ideologiia, osnovy, rezhimy vlasti, Moscow, 1998;

M. Brinton, The Bolsheviks and WorkersÕ Control, 1917 to 1921, London, 1970;

V.N. Brovkin, Behind the Front Lines of the Civil War: Political Parties and Social Movements in Russia, 1918-1922, Princeton, 1994;

V. Buldakov, Krasnaia smuta, Moscow: Rosspen, 1997;

R.K. Debo, Revolution and Survival. The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1917-1918, University of Toronto Press, 1979;

E.M. Dune, Notes of a Red guard, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1993;

M. Ferro, Des Soviets au communisme bureaucratique, Paris, 1980;

S. Fitzpatrick, The Commissariat of enlightenment: Soviet organization of education and the arts under Lunacharsky, October 1917-1921, Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1970;

D. Fogelsong, AmericaÕs Secret War against Bolshevism: U.S. Intervention in the Russian Civil War, 1917-1920, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995;

V.I. Goldin, Rossiia v grazhdanskoi voine: ocherki noveishei istoriografii (vtoraia polovina 1980-kh-90-e gody), ArkhangelÕsk: Borges, 2000;

A. Graziosi, At the Origins of Soviet Industrial Relations and Practices: PiatakovÕs Donbas in 1921, in A. Graziosi, A New Peculiar State, cit.;

L. HŠfner, Die Partei der linken SozialrevolutionŠre in der russischen revolution von 1917-1918, Kšln, 1994;

A.G. Kavtaradze, Voennye spetsialisty na sluzhbe Respubliki sovetov, 1917-1921, Moscow: Nauka, 1988;

P. Kenez, Civil War in South Russia, 1918-1920, 2 vols., Berkeley, 1971-1977;

S.I. Liberman, Building LeninÕs Russia, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1945;

S. Malle, The economic Organization of War Communism, 1918-1921, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985;

M. McAuley, Bread and Justice: State and Society in Petrograd, 1917-1922, Oxford University Press, 1991;

V.I. Musaev, PrestupnostÕ v Petrograde v 1917-1921 gg., Sankt-Petersburg, 2001;

J. Noulens, Mon ambassade en Russie soviŽtique, 1917-1919, 2 vols., Paris, 1923;

D.J. Raleigh, Experiencing RussiaÕs Civil War: Politics, Society, and Revolutionary Culture in Saratov, 1917-1922, Princeton, 2002;

T.H. Rigby, LeninÕs Government. Sovnarkom, 1917-1922, Cambridge, 1979;

W.G. Rosenberg, Liberals in the Russian Revolution. The Constitutional Democratic Party, 1917-1921, Princeton 1974;

A. Salomoni, Il pane quotidiano: ideologia e congiuntura nella Russia sovietica, 1917-1921, Bologna, 2001;

J. Smele, Civil War in Siberia: The Anti-Bolshevik Government of Admiral Kolchak, 1918-1920, Cambridge, 1996;

P. Sorokin, Hunger as a Factor in Human Affairs (1922), Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1975 (remarkable);

R. Stites, Revolutionary Dreams: Utopian Vision and Experimental Life in the Russian Revolution, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989;

R.H. Ulman, Anglo-Soviet Relations, 1917-1921, 3 vols., Princeton, 1961-1972.


DIIIa5. The countryside

P. Arshinov, History of the Makhnovist Movement, 1918-1921 (1923), Detroit, 1974;

O. Figes, Peasant Russia, Civil War: The Volga Countryside in Revolution, 1917-1921, Oxford: Clarendon press, 1989;

H.H. Fisher, Famine in Soviet Russia, 1919-1922, New York, 1927;

H.H. Fisher, The Famine in Soviet Russia: Operations of ARA, 1919-1923, Stanford, CA., 1935;

M.S. Frenkin, Tragediia krestÕianskikh vosstanii v Rossii: 1918-1921 gg, Jerusalem: Leksicon, 1987;

A. Graziosi, State and Peasants in the Reports of the Political Police, 1918-1922, in A. Graziosi, A New Peculiar State, cit.;

V.V. Kabanov, KrestÕianskoe khoziaistvo v usloviiakh Ņvoennogo kommunizmaÓ, Moscow, 1988;

L. Lih, Bread and Authority in Russia, 1914-1921, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1990 (a questionable book);

L.N. Litoshenko, Sotsializatsiia zemli v Rossii (1922), Novosibirsk, 2001 (remarkable);

B. Patenaude, The big Show in Bololand: The American Relief Expedition to Soviet Russia in the Famine of 1921, Stanford, 2002;

O.H. Radkey, The Agrarian Foes of Bolshevism, Promise and Default of the Russian Socialist Revolutionaries, New York: Columbia University Press, 1958;

V.F. Verstiuk, Makhnyvshchina, 1918-1921, Kyiv 1991 (the bibliography on Makhno is endless);

Volin (pseud. of V.M. Eikhenbaum), The Unknown Revolution, 1917-1921, New York, 1974.


DIIIa6. Nationalities

H. Abramson, A Prayer for the Government: Ukrainians and Jews in Revolutionary Times, 1917-1920, Cambridge, MA, 1999;

A.E. Adams, Bolsheviks in the Ukraine: The Second Campaign, 1918-1919, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963;

R. Alapuro, State and Revolution in Finland, Berkeley, 1988;

S. Blank, ŅThe formation of the Soviet North Caucasus 1918-24,Ó Central Asian Survey, 12 (1993);

S. Blank, ŅThe Soviet conquest of Georgia,Ó Central Asian Survey, 12 (1993);

J. Borys, The Sovietization of Ukraine, 1917-1923, Edmonton: CIUS, 1980;

D. Brower, Turkestan and the Fate of the Russian Empire, London, 2003;

M. Buttino, La rivoluzione capovolta. LÕAsia centrale tra il crollo dellÕimpero zarista e la formazione dellÕUrss, Napoli, 2003;

J. CastagnŽ, Les basmatchis. Le mouvement national des Indignes dÕAsie centrale depuis la RŽvolution dÕOctobre 1917 jusquÕen Octobre 1924, Paris, 1925;

C. Chaqueri, The Soviet Socialist Republic of Iran, 1920-1921, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1995;

D. Doroshenko, History of Ukraine, 1917-1923, Winnipeg: Hetman Movement Leadership, 1973-;

S.I. Goldelman, Jewish National Autonomy in Ukraine, 1917-1920, Chicago, 1968;

T. Hunczak, ed., The Ukraine, 1914-1921: A Study in Revolution, Cambridge, MA, 1977;

O.S. Fedyshyn, GermanyÕs Drive to the East and the Ukrainian Revolution, New Brunswick, 1971;

A. Graziosi, BolÕsheviki i krestÕiane na Ukraine, 1918-199 gody, Moscow: Airo-XX, 1997;

F. Kazemzadeh, The Struggle for Transcaucasia (1917-1921), New York, 1951;

P. Khrystiuk, Zamitky i materialy do istorii ukra•nsÕkoi revoliutsii, 1917-1920 rr. (1921), New York, 1969;

R.A. Mark, Simon Petljura und die UNR, Forschungen zur osteuropŠischen Geschichte, Bd. 40, Berlin, 1988;

I. Majstrenko, BorotÕbism: a chapter in the history of Ukrainian communism, New York, 1954;

O.S. Pidhainy, The Ukrainian Republic in the great East-European revolution, New York, 1966;

R. Pipes, The Formation of the Soviet Union: Communism and Nationalism, 1917-1923, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1964 (important);

A. Procyk, Russian Nationalism and Ukraine: The Nationality Policy of the Volunteer Army, Edmonton: CIUS, 1995;

J. Reshetar, The Ukrainian Revolution, 1917-1920: A Study in Nationalism, Princeton, 1952;

A. Roshwald, Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, Russia and the Middle East, 1914-1923, London: Routledge 2001 (a useful and well done overview);

G. Safarov, KolonialÕnaia revoliutsiia. Opyt Turkestana (1921), Oxford, 1985;

J. Smith, The Bolsheviks and the National Question, 1917-23, London, 1999;

R.G. Suny, The Baku Commune: Class and Nationality in the Russian Revolution, Princeton, 1972;

A. Ter Minassian, La RŽpublique dÕArmŽnie: 1918-1920, Bruxelles, 1989.


DIIIb. The Nep and its crisis, 1922-1929


DIIIb1. General works

P. BrouŽ, Communistes contre Staline. Massacre dÕune gŽnŽration, Paris, 2003;

E.H. Carr, The Interregnum, 1923-1924; Socialism in One country, 1924-26; Foundations of a Planned Economy, 1926-1929 (with R.W. Davies), London 1954-1978 (still the fundamental work on the NEP Šsee below for its prosecution, more heavily focused on the economy, by R.W. Davies);

R.V. Daniels, The Conscience of the Revolution. Communist Opposition in Soviet Russia, New York 1969;

S. Fitzpatrick, A. Rabinowitch, R. Stites, eds., Russia in the Era of NEP, Bloomington, ID 1991;

M. Lewin, Russian Peasants and Soviet Power, 1928-1930, Evanston, IL., 1968 (an important book);
R. Pethybridge, One Step Backwards, Two Steps Forward: Soviet Society and Politics in the New Economic Policy, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1990;

M. Reiman, The birth of Stalinism: The USSR on the Eve of the Second Revolution, Bloomington, 1987;

L. Siegelbaum, Soviet State and Society between Revolutions, 1918-1929, Cambridge, 1992;

L.D. Trotski, The Stalin School of Falsification, New York, 1937.


DIIIb2. Economy and society

A.M. Ball, RussiaÕs Last Capitalists: The Nepmen, 1921-1929, Berkeley: UC Press, 1987;

W.J. Chase, Workers, Society and the Soviet State: Labor and Life in Moscow, 1918-1928, Urbana, IL, 1987;

R. Day, Trotsky and the Politics of Economic Isolation, Cambridge, 1973;

A. Erlich, The Soviet Industrialization Debate, 1924-1928, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1960;

Iu.M. Goland, Krizisy, razrushivshie NEP, Moscow, 1998 (the best recent work, partially published in English in ŅCurrency regulation in the NEP period,Ó Europe-Asia Studies, 46 (1994));

S. Grosskopf, LÕalliance ouvrire et paysanne en URSS (1921-1928), Paris, 1976;

V. Izmozik, ŅVoice from the Twenties: Private Correspondence Intercepted by the OGPU,Ó The Russian Review, 55 (1996);

M. Jansen, A Show Trial under Lenin: The Trial of the S-R, Moscow 1992, The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1982 (see now Sudebnyi protsess nad sotsialistami-revoliutsionerami (iiunÕ-avgust 1922 goda). Podgotovka, provedenie, itogi, Moscow, Rosspen, 2002);

N. Jasny, Soviet Economists of the Twenties: Names To Be Remembered, Cambridge, 1972;

L.N. Jurovskij, Currency Problems and Policy of the Soviet Union, London: Parsons, 1925 (a classic, by one of RussiaÕs greates economists, purged in the 1930s);

N.A. Krivova, VlastÕ i tserkovÕ v 1922-1925 g.: Politbiuro i GPU v borÕbe za tserkovnye cennosti i politicheskoe podchinenie dukhovenstva, Moskva, 1997;

A. Luukkanen, The Party of Unbelief: The Religious Policy of the Bolshevik Party, 1917-1929, Helsinki, Suomen Historiallinen Seura, 1994;

R.A. Maguire, Red Virgin Soil: Soviet Literature in the 1920Õs, Ithaca, NY, 1987;

A. Rashin, Zarabotnaia plata za vosstanovitelÕnyi period khoziaistva SSSR, Moscow, 1928;

N. Spulber, Foundations of Soviet Strategy for Economic Growth: Selected Soviet Essays, 1924-1930, Bloomington, 1964 (a useful collection);

S. Zagorsky, Le Mouvement syndical dans la Russie des Soviets, Genve, 1927;

S. Zagorsky, Wages and Regulations of Conditions of Labour in the USSR, Genve, 1930;

V. Zenzinov, Deserted: The Story of the Children Abandoned in Soviet Russia, London, 1931.


DIIIb3. Nationalities

See Carr and the works quoted in section DIC. above, especially Martin and Mace.


A. Haugen, The Establishment of National Republics in Soviet Central Asia, New York, 2003;

Myroslav Shkandrij, Modernists, Marxists, and the Nation: The Ukrainian Literary Discussion of the 1920s, Edmonton, 1992.


DIIIb4. Foreign policy

See also Carr.


G.Z. Besedovsky, Revelations of a Soviet Diplomat, London, 1931;

C. Brandt, StalinÕs Failure in China, 1924-1927, Cambridge, 1983;

W. Beitel, J. Nštzold, Deutsch-sowjetische Wirtschaftsbeziehungen in der Zeit der Weimarer Republik, Baden Baden: Nomos, 1979;

B.A. Elleman, Diplomacy and Deception: The Secret History of Sino-Soviet Diplomatic Relations,
, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997;

A. Hogenhuis-Selivertsoff, Les relations franco-soviŽtiques, 1917-1924, Paris, 1981;

A. Pancov, Tainaia istoria sovetsko-kitaiskikh otnoshenii: BolÕsheviki i kitaiskaia revoliutsiia (1919-1927), Moscow, 2001;

G. Petracchi, La Russia rivoluzionaria nella politica italiana: le relazioni italo-sovietiche, 1917-1925, Laterza: Roma, 1982;

V.A. Shishkin, Stanovlenie vneshnei politiki poslerevoliutsionnoi Rossii (1917-1930 gody) i kapitalisticheskii mir, Sankt-Peterburg, Bulanin, 2002;

A. Rapoport, Sovetskoe torgpredstvo v Berline, 1926-1929, New York, 1981.



DIIIc. The 1930s


DIIIc1. General works, Stalinism

A. Avtorkhanov, Stalin and the Soviet Communist Party: A Study in the Technology of Power, Munich, 1959;

W.H. Chamberlin, RussiaÕs Iron Age, Boston, Little, Brown 1934;

Y. Cohen, ŅDes lettres comme action: Stalin au dŽbut des annŽes 1930 vu depuis le fond KaganovičÓ, Cahiers du monde russe, 3 (1997);

S. Fitzpatrick, Stalinism: New Directions, London: Routledge, 2000;

S. Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary times, New York, 1999;

I. Kershaw et M. Lewin, eds., Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in Comparison, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997;

O.V. Khlevniuk, Politbiuro. Mekhanizmy politicheskoi vlasti v 1930-e gody, Moscow, 1996 (the best recent book on the topic);

S. Kotkin, Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization, Berkeley, 1995;

N. Lampert, G.T. Rittersporn, eds., Stalinism, Its Nature and Aftermath: Essays in Honor of Moshe Lewin, Armonk, NY, 1992;

Les annŽes 30: nouvelles direction de la recherche, special issue, Cahiers du monde russe, 1-2 (1998);

A. Luukkanen, The Religious Policy of the Stalinist State. A Case Study: The Central Standing Commission on Religious Questions, 1929-1938, Helsinki, Suomen Historiallinen Seura, 1997;

R.A. Medvedev, Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism (1971), revised edition, New York, 1989 (important);

E. Osokina, Our Daily Bread: Socialist Distribution and the Art of Survival in StalinÕs Russia, 1927-1941, Armonk, NY 2001 (important);

R. Pethybridge, The Social Prelude to Stalinism, London: Macmillan, 1974;

ƒ. Pisier-Kouchner, ed., Les InterprŽtations du stalinisme, Paris, 1983;

S. Plaggenborg , ed., Stalinismus: neue Forschungen und Konzepte, Berlin: A. Spitz, 1998;

E.A. Rees, ed., Centre-Local Relations in the Stalinist State, London, 2002;

H. Rousso, ed., Stalinisme et nazisme: histoire et mŽmoire compareŽs, Bruxelles, 1999;

L. Siegelbaum, A. Sokolov, eds., Stalinism as a Way of Life: A Narrative in Documents, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000;

L.D. Trotsky, The Revolution Betrayed (1937), New York, 1972 (a fundamental book);

R.C. Tucker, ed., Stalinism: Essays in Historical Interpretation, New York: W.W. Norton, 1977;

L. Viola, ed., Contending with Stalinism: Soviet Power and Popular Resistance in the 1930s, Ithaca, 2002;

S. and B. Webb, Soviet Communism: A New Civilization?, New York, 1936 (a book, alas, typical of many decent Western intellectualsÕ tragic blunders and intellectual shallowness).


DIIIc2. Dekulakization, collectivization, famine, kolkhozy

R. Conquest, Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror Famine, Oxford, 1986 (important);

R.W. Davies, The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia: vol. 1, The Socialist Offensive: The Collectivisation of Soviet Agriculture, 1929-1930; vol. 2, The Soviet Collective Farm, 1929-1930, London: Macmillan, 1980;

R.W. Davies, S.G. Wheatcroft, The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931-1933, New York, 2004 (important);

M. Dolot, Execution by Hunger: The Hidden Holocaust, New York, 1985;
S. Fitzpatrick, StalinÕs Peasants: Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village After Collectivization, New York ; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994;

The Great Famine in Ukraine, 1932-33. A Collection of Memoirs, Speeches and Essays, Toronto 1983;

M. Hindus, Red Bread, New York: J. Cape, 1931;

Holod-henotsyd 1933 roku v Ukraїni, Kyїv, 2000;

L.E. Hubbard, The Economics of Soviet Agriculture, London, 1939;

B. Kerblay, Les MarchŽs paysans en U.R.S.S., Paris: Mouton et Cie, 1968 (a serious book, though it makes no mention of the famine, and is thus indicative of the climate of those days);

V. Kondrashin, D. Penner, Golod: 1932-33 v sovetskoi derevne (na materiale Povolzhia, Dona i Kubani), Samara-Penza 2002;

S. KulÕchytsÕkyi, ed., Holodomor 1932-1933 rr v Ukra•ni: prychyny i naslidky, Kyiv, 1993;

R. Serbyn, B. Krawchenko, eds., Famine in Ukraine 1932-33, Toronto, 1986;

N.A. Ivnitskii, Kollektivizatsiia i raskulachivanie, Moscow, 1996 (important);

N.A. Ivnitskii , ed., Golod 1932-1933 godov, Moscow, 1995;

S. Merl, Bauern unter Stalin: die Formierung des sowjetischen Kolchossystems, 1930-1941, Berlin, 1990;

I. Ohayon, Ņ ŌDu nomadisme au socialismeÕ. SŽdentarisation, collectivisation et acculturation des Kazakhs en URSS (1928-1945)Ó, Ph. D. Dissertation, Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (INALCO), Paris, 2003;

N. Pianciola, ŅFamine in the Steppe. The Collectivization of Agriculture and the Kazak Herdsmen, 1928-1934,Ó Cahiers du monde russe, 1-2 (2004);

A. Romano, Contadini in uniforme: lÕArmata rossa e la collettivizzazione, Firenze: Olschki, 1999

L.H. Siegelbaum, ŅŌDear Comrade, You Ask What We Need:Õ Socialist Paternalism and Soviet Rural ŌNotablesÕ in the Mid-1930s,Ó Slavic Review, 1 (1998);

G. Sokoloff, ed., 1933, lÕannŽe noire: tŽmoignages sur la famine en Ukraine, Paris: A. Michel, 2000;

L. Viola, Best Sons of the Fatherland: Workers in the Vanguard of Soviet Collectivization, New York, 1987 (a questionable book);

L. Viola, Peasant Rebels under Stalin: Collectivization and the Culture of Peasant Resistance, New York, 1996;

M.A. Vyltsan, Zavershaiushchii etap sozdaniia kolkhoznogo stroia, 1935-1937 gg., Moscow: Nauka, 1978;

N. Werth, ed., ŅLe pouvoir sovŽtique et lÕEglise orthodoxe de la collectivisation ˆ la Constitution de 1936. DocumentsÓ, Revue dՎtudes comparatives est-ouest, 3-4 (1993).


DIIIc3. Cities and industrialization

V. Andrle, Workers in StalinÕs Russia: Industrialization and Social Change in a Planned Economy, St. MartinÕs Press 1988;

F. Benvenuti, Fuoco sui sabotatori. Stachanovismo e organizzazione industriale in Urss, 1934-38, Roma: Levi, 1988;

M.I. Khlusov, ed., Ekonomika GULaga i ee rolÕ v razvitii strany, 1930-e gody, Moscow: IRI RAN, 1998;

R.W. Davies, The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia: vol. 3, The Soviet Economy in Turmoil, 1929-30; vol. 4, Crisis and Progress in the Soviet Economy, 1931-33, London: Macmillan, 1989-1996 (important);

J-P. De Pretto, Les ouvriers en U.R.S.S., 1928-1941, Paris, 1997;

D. Filtzer, Soviet Workers and Stalinist Industrialization: The Formation of Modern Soviet Production Relations, 1928-1941, Armonk, NY, 1986;

S. Fitzpatrick, Cultural Revolution in Russia, 1928-31, Bloomington, 1978 (a book that was important, and contested);

S. Fitzpatrick, ŅSignals from Below: Soviet Letters of Denunciation of the 1930s,Ó Journal of Modern History, 4 (1996);

L. Graham, The Soviet Academy of Science and the Communist Party, 1927-1932, Princeton, N.J., 1967;

C.B. Hoover, The Economic Life of Soviet Russia, New York, 1931 (interesting and sharp);

H.Hunter, J.M. Szirner, Faulty foundations: Soviet Economic Policies, 1928-1940, Princeton, 1992;

H. Kuromiya, StalinÕs Industrial Revolution: Politics and Workers, 1928-1932, Cambridge, UK, 1988;

V.S. LelÕchuk, Socialisticheskaia industrializatsiia SSSR i ee osveshchenie v Sovetskoi istoriografii, Moscow, 1978;

E.A. Osokina, Ierarkhiia potrebleniia, 1928-1935, Moscow, 1993 (important);

A. Pasquier, ŅLe stakhanovismeÓ, Ph.D. Dissertation, UniversitŽ de Caen, 1937;

J.J. Rossman, ŅThe Teikovo Cotton WorkersÕ Strike of April 1932,Ó The Russian Review, 56 (1997);

J.J. Rossman, ŅWeaver of Rebellion and Poet of Resistance: Kapiton Klepikov (1880-1933),Ó Jahrbucher fŸr Geschichte Osteuropas, 44 (1996);

D.R. Shearer, Industry, State and Society in StalinÕs Russia, 1926-1934, Ithaca, NY, 1996;

L.H. Siegelbaum, Stakhanovism and the politics of productivity in the USSR, 1935-41, Cambridge U.P., 1988;

D.R. Stone, Hammer and Rifle: The Militarization of the Soviet Union, 1926-1933, Lawrence, 2000;

U. Weissenburger, MonetŠrer Sektor und Industrialisierung der Sowjetunion, 1927-33, Haag, 1983;

S. Zhuravlev, ŅMalenkie liudiÓ i Ņbolshaia istoriiaÓ: inostrantsy moskovskogo Elektrozavoda, Moscow: Rosspen, 2000.


DIIIc4. Memoirs

See also section BVc. above.


G. Agabekov, OGPU: The Russian Secret Terror, New York, 1931;

K.I. Albrecht, Der verratene Sozialismus, zehn Jahre als hoher Staatsbeamter in der Sowjetunion, Berlin, 1939;

F. Beal, Word from Nowhere, London, 1938;

J. Berger, Nothing but the Truth: Shipwreck of a Generation, London: Harvill, 1971;

M. Buber-Neumann, Under Two Dictators, New York, 1950;

A. Charagin, (pseud.), En prison avec Tupolev, Paris: A. Michel, 1973;

G. Ciocca, Giudizio sul bolscevismo, Milano, 1934;

V. Garros, Intimacy and Terror. Soviet Diaries of the 1930s, New York, 1995;

A. Gide, Return from the USSR, New York, 1937;

S.Z. Ginzburg, O proshlom: dliia budushchego, Moscow, 1986;

L.L. Kerber, StalinÕs Aviation Gulag: A Memoir of Andrei Tupolev and the Purge Era, Washington, DC: Smithsonian institution press, 1996;

A. Koesler, The Invisible Writing, New York, 1954;

W.G. Krivitsky, In StalinÕs Secret Service, New York, 1939;

A. Kuusinen, The Ring of Destiny: Inside Soviet Russia from Lenin to Brezhnev, New York, 1974;

E. Lyons, Assignment in Utopia, New York, 1937;

E.K. Poretsky, Our Own People: A Memoirs of ŌIgnace ReissÕ and His Friends, London, 1969;

A. Smith, I Was a Soviet Worker, London, 1937.


DIIIc5. Repression


F. Beck, W. Godin, Russian Purge and the Extraction of Confession, New York, 1951;

K. Bliss, Eaton, ed., Enemies of the People: The Destruction of Soviet Literary, Theater, and Film Arts in the 1930s, Evanston, IL.: Northwestern University Press, 2002;

W.J. Chase, Enemy within the Gates? The Comintern and the Stalinist Repression, 1934-1939, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001;

O.V. Chlevnjuk (Khlevniuk), Stalin e la societˆ sovietica negli anni del terrore, Perugia: Guerra, 1997;

R. Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment (1968), London 1990 (important);

S. Davies, Popular Opinion in StalinÕs Russia: Terror, Propaganda and Dissent, 1934-1941, Cambridge, 1997;

J. Arch Getty, Origins of the Great Purges: The Soviet Communist Party Reconsidered, 1933-1938, Cambridge University Press, 1985 (a book that generated much discussion, but whose main thesis was proven wrong);

M. Gorky et al., Belomor: An Account of the Construction of the New Canal between the White Sea and the Baltic Sea, New York, 1935;

O.V. Khlevniuk, ŅPrinuditelÕnyi trud v ekonomike SSSR, 1929-1941Ó, Svobodnaia myslÕ, 14 (1992);

O.V. Khlevniuk, 1937-j: Stalin, NKVD i sovetskoe obshchestvo, Moscow: Respublika, 1992;

A. Knight, Who Killed Kirov? The KremlinÕs Greatest Mystery, New York: Hill and Wang, 1999;

H. Kostiuk, Stalinist Rule in the Ukraine: A Study of the Decade of Mass Terror, 1929-1939, New York: Praeger, 1961;

S.Iu. Kuniaev, S.S. Kuniaev, Rasterzannye teni: izbrannye stranitsy iz ŅDelÓ 20-30-kh gg., Moscow: Golos, 1995 (on Esenin and his circle);

N. Lartseva, Teatr rasstrelianyi, Petrozavodsk: Petropress, 1998;

F.-X. NŽrard, Cinq pour cent de vŽritŽ : la dŽnonciation dans lÕURSS de Staline, Paris, 2004.


DIIIc6. Foreign policy

M. Beloff, The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia (1929-1941), 2 vols., London, 1960;

E.H. Carr, Twilight of the Comintern, 1930-1935, New York, 1982;

S. Dullin, Des hommes dÕinfluences: les ambassadeurs de Staline en Europe, 1930-1939, Paris: Payot & Rivages, 2001;

J.B. Duroselle, ed., Les relations Germano-SoviŽtiques de 1933 ˆ 1939, Paris: Armand Colin, 1954;

H.L. Dyck, Weimar Germany and Soviet Russia, 1926-1933, London, 1966;

E. Gnedin, Iz istorii otnoshenii mezhdu SSSR i fashistskoi Germaniei, New York, 1977;

J. Haslam, The Soviet Union and the Struggle for Collective Security in Europe, 1933-1939, London: Macmillan, 1984;

S. Pons, Stalin and the Inevitable War, 1936-1941, London, 2002;

A. Vaksberg, H™tel Lux: les partis frres au service de lÕInternationale communiste, Paris: Fayard, 1993.



DIIId. War and post-war years, 1939-1953

See also Grossman, Vie et destin and Krivosheev, Grif, quoted in section B. above.


DIIId1. World War II

O. Bartov, The Eastern Front, 1941-1945: German Troops and the Barbarization of Warfare, New York: St. MartinÕs, 1986;

J. Beaumont, Comrades in Arms, London, 1980 (on the AlliesÕ help to the USSR);

A. Beevor, Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege, 1942-43, New York, 1993;

Central Intelligence Agency, The Rote Kapelle: The CIAÕs History of Soviet Intelligence and Espionage Networks in Western Europe, 1936-1945, Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1986;

W.S. Churchill, The Second World War, 6 vols., London, 1948;

Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg. Handbuch, 7 vols., Stuttgart, 1979;

A. Dovzhenko, Ukra•na v ohni: kinopovistÕ, shchodennyk, Kyiv, 1990;

M. Ellman, S. Maksudov, ŅSoviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: A Note,Ó Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 46, 4 (1994);

J. Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad and The Road to Berlin (1975), Yale University Press, 1999; (still the best books, with extraordinary bibliographic essays);

R.B. Evdokimov, ed., Liudskie poteri SSSR v Velikoi Otechestvennoi Voine, Spb, 1995;

D.M. Glantz, The Role of Intelligence in Soviet Military Strategy in World War II, Novato, CA: Presidio, 1990;

D.M. Glantz, J. House, When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler, Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995 (the best recent synthesis);

D.M. Glantz, Stumbling Colossus: The Red Army on the Eve of World War, Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998;

G. Gorodetsky, Grand Delusion: Stalin and the German Invasion of Russia, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999;

G. Gorodetsky, S. Naveh, eds., The Soviet Union and the Outbreak of War, 1939-1941, London, 2001;

P.G. Grigorenko, Staline et le deuxime guerre mondiale, Paris, 1970;

A. Nekrich, 22 June 1941 (Moscow, 1967), New York, 1968 (an important book);

R. Overy, RussiaÕs War: Blood upon the Snow, New York: TV books, 1997 (a good introduction);

V. Pavlov, Operatsiia ŅSNEGÓ: polveka vo vneshnei razvedki KGB, Moscow: Geia, 1996;

P. PospŽlov , ed., La grande guerre nationale de lÕUnion soviŽtique, 1941-1945: aperu historique, Moscow: Editions du Progrs, 1974 (an abridged edition of Istoriia Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1941-1945, 6 vols., Moscow, 1960-1965);

H. Salisbury, The 900 Days: The Siege of Leningrad, New York, 1969;

A. Seaton, The Russo-German War, 1941-45, Praeger, 1970;

H. Schwendemann, Die wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit zwischen dem Deutschen Reich und der Sowjetunion, 1939 bis 1941, Berlin, 1993;

E.S. Seniavskaia, Frontovoe pokolenie, 1941-1945. Istoriko-psichologicheskoe issledovanie, Moscow: Ran, 1995;

E. Sinitsyn, Rezident svidetelÕstvuet, Moscow: Geia, 1996 (on the war in Finland and the Scandinavian peninsula);

V.E. Tarrant, The Red Orchestra: The Soviet Spy Network inside Nazi Europe, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995;

L. Trepper, The Great Game, New York, 1977;

A. Upton, Finland in Crisis, 1940-41, New York, 1964;

LÕURSS en guerre, special issue, Revue dÕhistoire de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, 43 (1961);

C. van Dyke, The Soviet Invasion of Finland, 1939-1940, London, 1997;

Velikaia otechestvennaia voina (Istoriografiia), Moscow: Ran, 1995;

A. Werth, Leningrad, New York, 1944;

A. Werth, Russia at War (1964), 2 vols., New York, 1984;

R. Whymant, StalinÕs Spy: Richard Sorge and the Tokyo Espionage Ring, New York: St. MartinÕs, 1998;

E. Ziemke, From Stalingrad to Berlin: The German Defeat in the East, Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center for Military History, 1968;

V.A. Zolotarev, G.N. Sevostianov, eds., Velikaia otechestvennaia voina, 1941-1945, 4 vols., Moscow: Nauka, 1998.


DIIId2. Internal front, repression, nationalities

J.A. Armstrong, Ukrainian Nationalism, 1939-1945, New York, 1955 (important);

S.R. Arnold, Stalingrad im sowjetischen GedŠchtnis: Kriegserinnerung und Geshchichsbild im totalitŠren Staat, Bochum: Projekt, 1998;

Iu.V. Arutiunian, Sovetskoe krestÕianstvo v gody Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, Moscow: Nauka, 1963;

E. Bacon, The GULag at War: StalinÕs Forced Labour System in the Light of the Archives, New York: New York University Press, 1994;

J. Barber and M. Harrison, The Soviet Home Front, 1941-45, London: Longman, 1991;

C. Berkhoff and M. Carynnyk, ŅThe OUN and Its Attitudes toward Germans and Jews,Ó Harvard Ukrainian Studies, 23, 3-4 (1999), pp. 149-184 (with a useful bibliography);

Y. Boshyk, Ukraine During WWII: History and Its Aftermath, Edmonton 1986;

Ia.E. Chadaev, Ekonomika SSSR v gody Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny, 1941-1945 gg, Moscow: MyslÕ, 1985;

U.G. Cherniavskii, Voina i prodovolÕstve, Moscow, 1964;

G. Fisher, Soviet Opposition to Stalin: a Case Study in World War II, Cambridge, MA, 1952;

V. Gonz‡les, El Campesino, life and death in Soviet Russia, New York, 1952;

M.M. Gorinov, ŅBudni osazhdennoi stolitsy: zhiznÕ i nastroeniia Moskvichei (1941-1942 gg.)Ó, Otechestvennaia istoriia, 3 (1996);

J.T. Gross, Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of PolandÕs Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia, Princeton University Press, 1988 (an important book);

M. Harrison, Soviet Planning in Peace and War, 1938-45, Cambridge, 1985;

M. Harrison, Accounting for War: Soviet Production, Employment and the Defence Burden, 1940-1945, Cambridge, 1996;

T. Huczak, ed., Ukraine: The Challenges of World War II, University Press of America, 2003;

K.S. Karol, Between Two World: The Life of a Young Pole in Russia, 1939-1946, New York, 1987;
G.V. Kostyrchenko, ŅSovetskaia tsenzura v 1941-1952 godakhÓ,
Voprosy istorii, 11-12 (1996);

M.V. KovalÕ, Ukraina va vtoroi mirovoi i Velikoi Otechestvennoi voinakh, 1939-1945 gg., Kyiv, 1994;

S.M. Miner, StalinÕs Holy War: Religion, Nationalism, and Alliance Politics, 1941-1945, University of North Carolina Press, 2003;

W. Moskoff, Bread of Affliction: The Food Supply in the USSR During World War II, Cambridge, 1990 (a useful book);

A.M. Nekrich, The Punished Peoples: The Deportation and Fate of Soviet Minorities, New York, 1978;

M. Parrish, The Lesser Terror: Soviet State Security, 1939-1953, Westport, CT: Praeger Press, 1996;

D.V. Pavlov, StoikostÕ, Moscow, 1983 (organizator of food supply during WWII);

D. Peris, ŅŌGod is on our side:Õ The Religious Revival on Unoccupied Soviet Territory during World War IIÓ, Kritika, 1 (1999);

J. Otto Pohl, ŅStalinÕs Genocide against the ŌRepressed PeoplesÕ,Ó Journal of Genocide Research, 2 (2000);

P.M. Polian, Zhertvy dvukh diktatur: zhiznÕ, trud, unizhenie i smertÕ sovetskikh voennoplennykh i ostarbaiterov na chuzhbine i na rodine, Moscow, Rosspen, 2002;

G. Pickhan, ŅŌThat Incredible History of the Polish Bund Written in a Soviet Prison:Õ the NKVD Files on Henrykh Erlich and Wiktor Alter,Ó Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, 10 (1997);

E.S. Seniavskaia, Frontovye pokolenie, 1941-1945. Istoriko-psichologicheskoe issledovanie, Moscow: IRI, 1995;

L. ShankovsÕkyi, Pokhidni hrupy OUN, MŸnchen, 1958;

 K. Sword, Deportation and Exile: Poles in the Soviet Union, 1939-1948, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1994;

N. Tolstoy, Victims of Yalta, revised ed., New York, 1979;

R.W. Thurston, B. Bonwetsch, eds., The PeopleÕs War: Responses to World War II in the Soviet Union, Urbana, IL, 2000;

Y. Tys-Krokhmaliuk, UPA Warfare in Ukraine: Strategical, Tactical and Organizational Problems of Ukrainian Resistance in World War II, New York, 1972;

N.A. Voznesenskii, Soviet Economy During the Second World War, New York, 1949;

M.A. Vyltsan, KrestÕianstvo Rossii v gody BolÕshoi voiny 1941-1945: pirrogo pobeda, Moscow, 1995;

A. Weiner, Making Sense of War: The Second World War and the Fate of the Bolshevik Revolution, Princeton, 2001;

J.K. Zawodny, Death in the Forest, Notre Dame, Indiana, 1962;

V. Zenzinov, Vstrecha s Rossiei: kak i chem zhivut v Sovetskom soiuze. PisÕma v Krasnuiu armiiu, 1939-1940, New York 1944.


DIIId3. German occupation

C. Andreyev, Vlasov and the Russian Liberation Movement: Soviet Reality and ƒmigrŽ Theories, Cambridge, 1987;

M. Berenbaum, ed., A Mosaic of Victims: Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis, London, 1990;

K.C. Berkhoff, Harvest of Despair. Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule, Cambridge, MA 2004 (important);

B. Chiari, Alltag hinter der Front: Besatzung, Kollaboration und Widerstand in Weissrussland, 1941-1944, DŸsseldorf, 1998;

A. Dallin, German Rule in Russia, 1941-45 (1957), London, 1981 (an important book);

A. Dallin, Odessa 1941-1944: A Case Study of Soviet Territory under Foreign Rule, Santa Monica: Rand, 1957;

L.D. Grenkevich, The Soviet Partisan Movement, 1941-44: A Critical Historiographical Analysis, London: Frank Cass, 1999;

E.M. Howell, The Soviet Partisan Movement, 1941-1944, Washington, DC: Dept. of the Army, 1956;

I. Kamenetsky, HitlerÕs Occupation of Ukraine, 1941-44. A Study of Totalitarian Imperialism, Milwaukee, WI, 1956;

W. Kosyk, The Third Reich and Ukraine, New York, 1993;

M.I. Semiriaga, Kollaboratsionizm: priroda, tipologiia i proiavleniia, Moscow, 2000.


DIIId4. Holocaust

R. Ainsztein, Jewish Resistance in Nazi-Occupied Eastern Europe: With a Historical Survey of the Jew as Fighter and Soldier in the Diaspora, London: P. Elek, 1974;

Y. Arad, ŅThe Holocaust of Soviet Jewry in the Occupied Territories of the Soviet Union,Ó Yad Vashem Studies, XXI (1991);

V. Barnett, Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity During the Holocaust, Westport, CT, 1999;

M. Dean, Collaboration in the Holocaust: Crimes of the Local Police in Belorussia and Ukraine, 1941-44, New York: St. MartinÕs Press, 1999;

L. Dobroszycki, J.S. Gurok, eds., The Holocaust in the Soviet Union: Studies and Sources on the Destruction of the Jews in the Nazi-Occupied Territories of the USSR, 1941-1945, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1993;

Z. Gitelman, ed., Bitter Legacy: Confronting the Holocaust in the USSR, Bloomington, 1997;

I. Gutman, ed., Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, 4 vols., New York, 1990;

R. Hilberg, The Destruction of European Jews (1961), 3 vols., New Haven, 2003;

Y. Arad, S. Krakowski, eds., The Einsatzgruppen Reports, 1941-1943, New York, 1989;

V.I. Petrenko, Avant et aprs Auschwitz, suivi de Le Kremlin et lÕHolocauste: 1933-2001, Paris, 2002;

S. Redlich, War, Holocaust and Stalinism. A Documented History of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee in the USSR, Luxembourg; United States: Harwood Academic, 1995;

L. SmilovitÕsÕkii, Katastrofa evreev v Belorussii, 1941-1944 gg, Tel Aviv, 2000.


DIIId5. Post-war years

A. Anusauskas, ed., The Anti-Soviet Resistance in the Baltic States, Vilnius: Du Ka Press, 1999;

B.G. Bomeshko, Zasukha i golod v Moldavii v 1946-1947 gg, Kishinev, 1990;

J. Burds, ŅAgentura: Soviet InformantsÕ Networks and the Ukrainian Rebel Underground in Galicia, 1944-1948,Ó East European Politics and Societies, 1 (1997);

J. Burds, The Early Cold War in Soviet West Ukraine, 1944-1948, The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies, n. 1505, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 2001;

J. Burds, ŅGender and Policing in Soviet West Ukraine, 1944-1948,Ó Cahiers du monde russe, 2-4 (2001);

R. Conquest, Power and Policy in the USSR, London, 1961 (still a valuable book)

A.A. Danilov, A.V. Pyzhikov, Rozhdenie sverkhderzhavy. SSSR v pervye poslevoennye gody, Moscow, 2001;

J. Daumantas, Fighters for Freedom: Lithuanian Partisans versus the U.S.S.R. (1944-1947), Second Edition, Toronto, 1975;

D. Deletant, ŅSoviet Influence in the Romanian Security Apparatus, 1944-1953,Ó Revue Romaine dÕHistoire, 3-4 (1994);

D. Filzter, ŅThe Standard of Living of Soviet Industrial Workers in the Immediate Postwar Period, 1945-1948,Ó Europe-Asia Studies, 6 (1999);

G. Hahn, Postwar Soviet Politics: The Fall of Zhdanov and The Defeat of Moderation, Ithaca, NY, 1982;

A. Inkeles, Public Opinion in Soviet Russia, Cambridge, MA, 1951 (an important book);

O.V. Khlevniuk, Y. Gorlizki, Cold Peace: Stalin and the Soviet Ruling Circle, 1945-53, Oxford, 2004;

M. Laar, War in the Woods: EstoniaÕs Struggle for Survival, 1944-56, Washington, DC: Compass Press, 1992;

S.J. Linz, ed., The Impact of the War on the Soviet Union, Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld, 1985;

I.M. Maloviichuk, Iu.H. PyliavetsÕ, ŅHolod na Ukra•ni u 1946-1947 rr.Ó, Ukra•nÕkyi istorychnyi zhurnal, 8 (1990);

B. Moore, Jr., Terror and ProgressŃUSSR, Cambridge, MA, 1954;

P. Potychnyj, Y. Shtendera, eds., Political Thought of the Ukrainian Underground, 1943-1951, Edmonton, 1986;

L. Rucker, Staline, Isra‘l et les Juifs, Paris, PUF, 2001;

C.Z. Sannikov, BolÕshaia okhota. Razgrom vooruzhennogo podpolÕia v zapadnoi Ukraine, Moscow, 2002;
R. Taagepera, ŅSoviet Documentation of the Estonian Pro-Independence Guerrilla Movement, 1945-1952,Ó Journal of Baltic Studies, 2 (1979);

O.M. Veselova, ed., Holod v Ukra•ni v 1946-47, Kyiv, 1996;

A. Werth, Russia: The Post War Years, New York: Taplinger, 1971;

V.F. Zima, Golod v SSSR 1946-1947 godov: proiskhodzhenie i posledstviia, Moscow, 1996;

E. Zubkova, Russia After the War: Hopes, Illusions, and Disappointments, 1945-1957 (Moscow, 1993 and 2000), Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1998 (the best Russian recent work on the period).


DIIId6. Foreign policy, Eastern Europe

L. Castin-Chaparro, Puissance de l'URSS, misres de l'Allemagne, Staline et la question allemande, 1941-1955, Paris, 2002;

R.B. Day, Cold War Capitalism: The View from Moscow, Londres, 1995;

V. Dedijer, The Battle Stalin Lost: Memoirs of Yugoslavia, 1948-1953, New York, 1971;

L.Ia. Gibianskii, Sovetskii soiuz i novaia Iugoslaviia, 1941-1947 gg, Moscow: Nauka, 1987;

S. Goncharov, J.W. Lewis, X. Litai, Uncertain Partners: Stalin, Mao, and the Korean War, Stanford, 1993;

P. Grose, Operation Rollback: AmericaÕs Secret War Behind the Iron Curtain, New York, 2000;

M. Kramer, ŅThe Soviet Union and the Founding of the German Democratic Republic: A Review Article,Ó Europe-Asia Studies, 6 (1999);

M.P. Leffler, D.S. Painter, eds., Origins of the Cold War: An International History, New York: Routledge, 1992;

L. LÕEstrange Fawcett, Iran and the Cold War: The Azerbaijan crisis of 1946, Cambridge, 1992;

V. Mastny, The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity: The Stalin Years, New York, 1996;

G. Mitrovich, Undermining the Kremlin: AmericaÕs Strategy to Subvert the Soviet Bloc, 1947-1956, Ithaca, NY, 2000;

N. Naimark, The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949, Cambridge, MA, 1995 (an important book);

N.M. Naimark, L. Gibianskii, eds., The Establishment of Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe, 1944-1949, Boulder: Westview Press, 1997 (a useful overview);

A.F. Noskova, ed., NKVD i polÕskoe podpolÕe, 1944-1945 (Po Ōosobym papkamÕ I. V. Stalina) Moscow: RAN, 1994;

J. Pirjevec, Tito, Stalin e lÕoccidente, Trieste: Estlibris, 1985;

S. Pons, F. Gori, eds., The Soviet Union and Europe in the Cold War, 1943-1953, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996;

L. Rucker, Staline, Isra‘l et les juifs, Paris, 2001;

M.I. Semiriaga, Kak my upravliali Germaniei, Moscow: Rosspen, 1995;

M.M. Sheng, Battling Western Imperialism: Mao, Stalin, and the United States, Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 1997;
T. Snyder,
ŅŌTo Resolve the Ukrainian Question Once and for All:Õ The Ethnic Cleansing of Ukrainians in Poland, 1943-1947,Ó Journal of Cold War Studies, 2 (1999) (an interesting essay);

E.-M. Stolberg, Stalin und die chinesischen Kommunisten, 1945-1953, Stuttgart, 1997;

P. Ther, A. Siljak, eds., Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-CentralEurope, 1944-1948, Rowan & Littlefield: Boston, 2001 (important);

A.V. Torkunov, Zagadochnaia voina: koreiskii konflikt 1950-1953 godov, Moscow, 2000;

K. Weathersby, ŅShould We Fear This?Ó: Stalin and the Danger of War with America, Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2002;

K. Weathersby, Soviet Aims in Korea and the Origins of the Korean War, 1945-1950, Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1993.



DIIIe. The Thaw and Khrushchev, 1953-1964

On specific nationalities, see section DIc. above.


DIIIe1. General works

G. Boffa, Inside the Khrushchev Era, New York, 1959;

A. Brumberg, ed., Russia under Khrushchev: An Anthology from Problems of Communism, New York: Praeger, 1962;

H. Carrre dÕEncausse, La dŽstalinisation commence: 1956, Bruxelles, 1984;

I. Deutscher, Russia: What Next?, New York, 1953;

D. Filtzer, The Khrushchev Era: De-Stalinization and the Limits of Reform in the USSR, 1953-1964, London: Macmillan, 1993;

M. Kramer, ŅThe Early Post-Stalin Succession Struggle and Upheavals in East-Central Europe: Internal-External Linkages in Soviet Policy Making,Ó Journal of Cold War Studies, 1-3 (1999) (a fundamental series of essays);

B. Lazitch, Le rapport Khrouchtchev et son histoire, Paris, 1976;

C. Linden, Khrushchev and the Soviet Leadership, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966;

M. McAuley, The Khrushchev Era: 1954-1964, New York: Longman, 1995;

V.P. Naumov, ŅK istorii sekretnogo doklada N.S. Khrushcheva na XX SÓezda KPSSÓ, Novaia i noveishchaia istoriia, 4 (1996);

A. Nove, Stalinism and After, London: Allen & Unwin, 1975;

A.I. Pozharov, ŅNovyi kurs L.P. Berii 1953 g.Ó, Istoricheskii arkhiv, 4 (1996);

A.B. Ulam, The New Face of Soviet Totalitarianism, New York: Praeger 1963.


DIIIe2. Economy and society

A. Balinky, ed., Planning and the Market in the USSR: The 1960s, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1967;

S.H. Baron, Bloody Saturday in the Soviet Union: Novocherkassk 1962, Stanford, CA. 2001;

J.A. Dellenbrant, Reformists and Traditionalists: A Study of Soviet Discussions about Economic Reforms, 1960-1965, Stockholm, 1972;

D. Filtzer, Soviet Workers and De-Stalinization: The Consolidation of the Modern System of Soviet Production Relations, 1953-1964, Cambridge, 1992;

G. Grossman, ed., Value and Plan: Economic Calculation and Organization in Eastern Europe, Berkeley: California UP, 1960;

G. Grossman, ed., Money and Plan: Financial Aspects of East European Economic Reforms, Berkeley: California UP, 1968;

A. Katz, The Struggle for Economic Reform in the Soviet Union, London: Praeger, 1972;

V.A. Kozlov, Mass Uprisings in the USSR: Protest and Rebellion in the Post-Stalin years, 1953-1980, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2002 (interesting);

P. Johnson McMillan, Khrushcev and the Arts: The Politics of Soviet Culture, 1962-1964, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965;

M. McAuley, Labour Disputes in Soviet Russia, 1957-1965, Oxford, 1969;

M.E. Sharpe, ed., The Liberman Discussion: A New Phase in Soviet Economic Thought, White Plains, NY, 1966;

A. Yanov, The Drama of the Soviet 1960Õs: A Lost Reform, Berkeley, 1984.


DIIIe3. The countryside

M. McCauley, Khrushchev and the Development of Soviet Agriculture: The Virgin Lands Programme: 1953-1964, London: Macmillan, 1976;

S. Ploss, Conflict and Decision Making in Soviet Russia: A Study of Agricultural Policy, 1953-1964, Princeton, 1965;

M. Pohl, ŅThe Virgin Lands between Memory and Forgetting: People and Transformation in the Soviet Union, 1954-1960,Ó Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Indiana, 1999;

I.E. Zelenin, Agrarnaia politika N.S. Khrushcheva, Moscow: IRI RAN, 2001.


DIIIe4. Foreign policy

J.D. Blight, D. Welch, On the Brink: Americans and Soviets Re-examine the Cuban Missile Crisis, New York: Noonday, 1990;

D.I. Dallin, Soviet Foreign Policy after Stalin, Philadelphia, 1961;

T. Dietrich, Der 17. Juni 1953 in der DDR, Berlin: Dietz, 1991;

F. Fejto, La tragŽdie hongroise: 1956, revised ed., Paris: Horay, 1996;

S. Fekete (Hungaricus), Hungaricus 1956, Roma, 1986

A. Fursenko, T. Naftali, One Hell of a Gamble: Khrushchev, Kennedy and Castro, 1958-1964, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997;

R.L. Garthoff, Reflections on the Cuban Missile Crisis, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1989;

W.E. Griffith, Albania and the Sino-Soviet rift, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1963;

W.E. Griffith, The Sino-Soviet Rift, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1964;

M. Kramer, ŅThe ŌMalin NotesÕ on the Crises in Hungary and Poland, 1956,Ó Cold War International History Project Bulletin, No. 8-9 (Winter 1996) (translated and thoroughly annotated transcripts of CPSU Presidium discussions);

M. Kramer, ŅThe Soviet Union and the 1956 Crises in Hungary and Poland: Reassessments and New Findings,Ó Journal of contemporary history, 2 (1998);

N.C. Leonov, LikholetÕe, Moscow, 1997;

B. Lomax, Hungary 1956, London, 1976;

R. Lšwenthal, World Communism: The Disintegration of a Secular Faith, New York, 1964;

P. Machcewicz, Polski rok 1956, Varsovie, 1993;

R.F. Miller, F. Feher, eds., Khrushchev and the Communist World, London:Croom Helm, 1974;

F. Perroux, La coexistence pacifique (1958), Paris, 1992 ;

M. Va•sse, La grandeur: politique Žtrangre du gŽnŽral de Gaulle, 1958-1969, Paris, 1998.



DIIIf. The Brezhnev era, 1964-1982

Except for foreign policy, this is the least-studied period from the historianÕs point of view. Many key archival collections are still closed. See also memoirs in section B and the thematic subsections above (biographies, foreign policy, social problems, nationalities, etc.).


DIIIf1. General works


Z. Brzezinski, ŅThe Soviet political system: trasformation or degeneration?Ó, Problems of Communism, 1 (1966) (an important essay);

H. Carrre dÕEncausse, Confiscated Power: How Soviet Russia Really Works, New York, 1982;

P. Cocks, R.V. Daniels, N.W. Heer, eds., The Dynamics of Soviet Politics, Cambridge, MA, 1976;

Iu.M. Churbanov, Ia rasskazhu vse kak bylo, Moscow, 1993;

A. Dallin, T. Laron, Soviet Politics Since Khrushchev, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1968;

J.B. Dunlop, The Faces of Contemporary Russian Nationalism, Princeton, 1983;

P. and M. Lavigne, Regards sur la Constitution soviŽtique de 1977, Paris, 1979;

M. E. Sharpe, ed., Reform of Soviet Economic Management, White Plains, NY, 1966;

G. Skilling, F. Griffiths, eds., Interest Groups in Soviet Politics, Princeton, 1971 (has been important);

M. Tatu, Power in the Kremlin: From KhrushchevÕs Decline to Collective Leadership, London, 1969;

V. Zaslavsky, The Neo-Stalinist State: Class, Ethnicity, and Consensus in Soviet Society, Armonk, N.Y., 1982.


DIIIf2. Society, nationalities, and the economy

A. Bergson, H.S. Levine, eds., The Soviet Economy: Toward the Year 2000, London, 1983;

I. Birman, ŅThe Financial Crisis in the USSR,Ó Soviet Studies, 32, 1 (1980);

J.M. van Brabant, Socialist Economic Integration: Contemporary Economic Problems in Eastern Europe, New York, 1980;

H. Carrre dÕEncausse, Decline of an Empire: The Soviet Socialist Republics in Revolt, New York, 1979;

B. Chavance, Le systme Žconomique soviŽtique: de Brejnev ˆ Gorbatchev, Paris, 1983;

E. Egnell, M. Peissik, LÕU.R.S.S.: lÕentreprise face ˆ lÕEtat, Paris, 1974;

G.V. Diachkov, Obshchestvennoe i lichnoe v kolkhozakh, Moscow, 1969;

N. Fedoryenko, ed., Soviet Economic Reform: Progress and Problems, Moscow, 1972;

J.L. Felker, Soviet Economic Controversies, Cambridge, MA, 1966;

M.I. Goldman, U.S.S.R. in Crisis: The Failure of an Economic System, New York, 1983 (a penetrant analysis);

Soviet Economy in a Time of Change, 2 vols., Washington, DC, 1979;

L.A . Gordon, E. Klopov, LÕHomme aprs le travail: les problmes sociaux de la vie quotidienne et du temps hors-travail, Moscow, 1976;

S. Hedlund, Crisis in Soviet Agriculture, London, 1984;

V. Kontorovich, ŅLessons of the 1965 Soviet Economic Reform,Ó Soviet Studies, 2 (1988);

J.R. Millar, ŅThe Little Deal: BrezhnevÕs Contribution to Acquisitive Socialism,Ó Slavic Review, 44, 4 (1985);

G. Ofer, A. Vinokur, The Soviet Household under the Old Regime: Economic Conditions and Behavior in the 1970s, Cambridge, 1992;

P.J. Potichnyj, ed., Ukraine in the Seventies, Oakville, Ont., 1975;

C. Revuz, Ivan Ivanovitch Žcrit ˆ la ŅPravdaÓ, Paris, 1980;

N.N. Schneideman, Soviet Literature in the 1970Õs, Toronto, 1979;

V.I. Staroverov, Gorod i derevnia, Moscow, 1972;

M. Yanowitch, ed., The Social Structure of the USSR: Recent Soviet Studies, Armonk, NY, 1986;

E. Zaleski, H. Wienert, Technology Transfer between East and West, Paris, 1980;

A. Zauberman, The Mathematical Revolution in Soviet Planning, Oxford, 1975.


DIIIf3. Dissent

See also sections BVe-d and BVI, as well as DIIj above.


A. Amalrik, Will the Soviet Union Survive until 1984? (1969), New York, 1980;

Y. Badzio, Etat de sige, ou une nation en pŽril, Paris, 1982;

Iu.V. Badzio, Pravo zhyty: Ukra•na v skladi SRSR, liudyna v systemi totalitarnoho sotsializmu, Ky•v, 1996;

J. Bilocerkowycz, Soviet Ukrainian Dissent, Boulder, 1988;

V. Boukovski (Bukovsky), Une nouvelle maladie mentale en URSS: lÕopposition, Paris, 1979;

V. Bukovsky, To Build a Castle: my Life as a Dissenter, London, 1978;

V. Chornovil, The Chornovil Papers, Toronto, 1968;

V. Chornovil, Ferment in the Ukraine, London, 1971;

D. Kretzschmar, Die sowjetische Kulturpolitik 1970-1985, Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1993;

V. Lakshin, Solzhenitsyn, Tvardovsky, and Novy Mir, Cambridge, MA, 1980;

A. Marchenko, My Testimony, New York, 1969;

R.D. Marwick, ŅCatalyst of Historiography, Marxism and Dissidence: The Sector of Methodology of the Institute of History, Soviet Academy of Science, 1964-1968,Ó Europe-Asia Studies, 4 (1994);

R. Medvedev, On Socialist Democracy, New York, 1977;

M.A. Popovskii, Science in Chains: The Crisis of Science and Scientists in the Soviet Union Today, London, 1980;

A. Sakharov, Progress, Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom, London, 1968 (important, of course);

A. Sakharov, My Country and the World, New York, 1975;

V. Shevchuk et al., Dobrookyi: spohady pro Ivana Svitlychnoho, Ky•v, 1998;

A. Solzhenitsyn, East and West, New York, 1980 (it includes the 1974 Letter to the Soviet Leaders);

R. Tokes, ed., Dissent in the USSR: Politics, Ideology, and People, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975;

A. Yanov, The Russian New Right: Right-Wing Ideologies in the Contemporary USSR, Berkeley 1978.


DIIIf4. Foreign policy

V.V. Aspaturian et al., eds., Eurocommunism between East and West, Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1980;

H. Carrre dÕEncausse, Ni paix ni guerre: le nouvel Empire soviŽtique ou du bon usage de la dŽtente, Paris: Flammarion, 1986;

A. de Tinguy, U.S.-Soviet Relations During the DŽtente, New York, 1999;

Iu.V. Dubinin, ŅTernistyi putÕ k KhelÕsinki, 1975 g.Ó, Novaia i noveishaia istoriia, 4-5 (1994) (Dubinin headed the Soviet delegation at Helsinki);

A. Fontaine, Un seul lit pour deux rve: histoire de la ŅDŽtenteÓ, 1962-1981, Paris, 1981;

R.L. Garthoff, DŽtente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan, Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1994;

H. Gelman, The Brezhnev Politburo and the Decline of DŽtente, Ithaca, 1984;

J. Haslam, The Soviet Union and the Politics of Nuclear Weapons in Europe, 1969-1987, Ithaca, NY, 1990;

R.L. Hutchings, Soviet-East European Relations, 1968-1980, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983;

V.L. Israelyan, Inside the Kremlin During the Yom Kippur War, University Park, PA, 1995;

M. Kramer, The Czechoslovak Crisis and the Brezhnev Doctrine, in C. Fink, P. Gassert, D. Junker, eds., 1968: The World Transformed, Cambridge, 1998;

M. Kramer, ŅBrežnev e lÕEuropa orientale Storica, 22 (2002) (an important essay);

M. Kramer, Crisis in Czechoslovakia, 1968: The Prague Spring and the Soviet Invasion, Harvard University Press, forthcoming;

M. Kramer, ŅSoviet Deliberations During the Polish Crisis, 1980-81,Ó Cold War International History Project, Special Paper no. 1;

R. Pipes, Vixi: Memoirs of a Non-Belonger, New Haven, CT, 2003;

M.-P. Rey, La tentation du rapprochement: France et URSS ˆ lÕheure de la dŽtente (1964-1974), Paris, 1991;

G. Segal, Sino-Soviet Relations after Mao, London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1985;

G. Sokoloff, La dr™le de crise: de Kaboul ˆ Genve, 1979-1985, Paris, 1987;

G. Sokoloff, The Economy of DŽtente: The Soviet Union and Western Capital, New York, 1987;

S.M. Terry, ed., Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984;

A.B. Ulam, Dangerous Relations: The Soviet Union in World Politics, 1970-1982, New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.



DIIIg. Reform, perestroika and collapse

Works, memoirs, and documents on this period abound. See also sections BVf and DIIe3 above.


DIIIg1. General works

Iu.M. Baturin et al., Epokha ElÕtsina: ocherki politicheskoi istorii, Moscow, 2001 (by YeltsinÕs collaborators);

A. Berelowitch, J. Radvanyi, Les 100 portes de la Russie: de lÕURSS ˆ la CEI, les convulsions dÕun gŽant, Paris, 1999;

R.F. Byrnes, ed., After Brezhnev, Bloomington, IN, 1983;

S. Cohen, ed., The Soviet Union Since Stalin, Bloomington, IN, 1980;

M. Cox, ed., Rethinking the Soviet collapse, London, 1998;

A. Dallin, ŅCauses of the Collapse of the USSRÓ, Post-Soviet Affairs, 4 (1992);

D.A. Leon et al., ŅHuge Variation in Russian Mortality Rates 1984-1994: Artefact, Alcohol or What?Ó, The Lancet, August 9 (1997) (an important, if short article);

R.D. English, Russia and the Idea of the West, New York, 2000;

R.L. Garthoff, ŅThe KGB Reports to Gorbachev,Ó Intelligence and National Security, 4 (1996);

E. Gellner, ŅHomeland of the unrevolution,Ó Daedalus, 122, 3 (1993);

M. Lewin, The Gorbachev Phenomenon: A Historical Interpretation, Berkeley, 1991;

A. Guerra, Il crollo dellÕimpero sovietico, Roma, 1996;

G.H. Hahn, RussiaÕs Revolution from Above: Reform, Transition, and Revolution
in the Fall of the Soviet Communist Regime
, New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers, 2002;

P. Hollander, Political Will and Personal Belief: The Decline and Fall of Soviet Communism, New Haven, 1999;

K. Jowitt, ŅSoviet Neotraditionalism: The Political Corruption of a Leninist Regime,Ó Soviet Studies, 35, 3 (1985);

S. Kotkin, Armageddon Averted: The Soviet Collapse, 1970-2000, Oxford, 2001 (an intelligent summary);

D.M. Kotz, Revolution from Above: The Demise of the Soviet System, London, 1997;

M. Kramer, ed., The Collapse of the Soviet Union, special issues of the Journal of Cold War Studies, part I, 1 (2003), part II, 4 (2003), part III Što be published (important);

W.E. Odom, The Collapse of the Soviet Military, New Haven, 1998;

J. Sapir, Feu le systme soviŽtique? Permanences politiques, mirages Žconomiques, enjeux stratŽgiques, Paris, 1992;

V. Shkolnikov et al., ŅChanges in Life Expectancy in Russia in the Mid-1990s,Ó The Lancet, March 24 (2001);

V. Shlapentokh, A Normal Totalitarian Society: How the Soviet Union Functioned and How It Collapsed, Armonk, NY, 2001;

G.R. Urban, End of Empire: The Demise of the Soviet Union, Washington, DC, 1993.


DIIIg2. Gorbachev and perestroika

GorbachevÕs memoirs and works are listed in sections BIV. and BVf. above.


Y. Afanassiev, M. Ferro, eds., 50 idŽes qui Žbranlent le monde: dictionnaire de la glasnost, Paris, 1989;

Y. Afanassiev, ed., La Seule issue: Sakharov et 33 intellectuels soviŽtiques en lutte pour la perestro•ka, Paris, 1989;

S. Bialer, ed., Politics, Society, and Nationality Inside GorbachevÕs Russia, Boulder, CO., 1989;

G. Breslauer, Gorbachev and Yeltsin as Leaders, Cambridge, 2002;

A. Brown, The Gorbachev Factor, Oxford, 1996;

500 imen perestroiki (1985-1991), Moscow, 1992;

M.-A. Crosnier, J. Gueit, A. de Tinguy, Les annŽes Gorbatchev. LÕUrss de 1985 ˆ 1991, Paris, 1993;

M. Ferro, Les Origines de la perestro•ka, Paris, 1990;

R. Gorbacheva, I Hope, New York, 1991;

M.I. Goldman, GorbachevÕs Challenge, New York, 1987;

L.A. Gordon, E.V. Klopov, Chto eto bylo? Razmyshleniia o predposylkakh i itogakh togo, chto sluchilos s nami v 30-40-e gody, Moscow, 1989;

U. Gosset, V. Federovski, Histoire secrte dÕun coup dՎtat, Paris, 1991;

G.M. Hahn, RussiaÕs Revolution from Above: Reform, Transition, and Revolution in the Fall of the Soviet Communist Regime, London, 2002;

M. Heller, Le 7e SecrŽtaire: splendeur et misre de Mikha•l Gorbatchev, Paris, 1990;

B. Kagarlitsky, The Dialectic of Change, New York, 1990;

B. Kerblay, GorbachevÕs Russia, New York, 1989;

K. Kobets, La vie quotidienne ˆ Moscow pendant le putsch, Paris, 1991;

V.S. LelÕchuk, Storiki sporiat, Moscow, 1988;

E. Mandel, Beyond Perestroika: The Future of GorbachevÕs USSR, London, 1989;

N.N. Maslov, A.N. Svalov, eds., Istoriki otvechaiut na voprosy, Moscow, 1988;

ŅNovosibirsk memorandum,Ó Survey, 28 (1984);

J. Radvanyi, LÕURSS en rŽvolution, Paris, 1987;

R. Sakwa, Gorbachev and His Reforms, 1985-1990, New York, 1990;

V. Shlykov  Chto pogubilo Sovetskii soiuz? Genshtab i ekonomika, Moscow, 2002 (a rare discussion of Soviet estimates by a GRU officer);

N. Shmelyev, V. Popov, The Turning Point: Revitalizing the Soviet Economy, London, 1990;

LÕURSS de Gorbatchev, special issue, Pouvoirs, 45 (1988);

LÕURSS en trasparence, special issue, Les Temps modernes, 492-94 (1987);

O. Volobuev, S. Kulechov, eds., Ochishenie: istoriia i perestroika, Moscow, 1989;

A. Zinoviev, Katastroika: Legend and Reality of Gorbachevism, London, 1990.


DIIIg3. Society and culture

A. Bergson, ŅThe USSR Before the Fall: How Poor and Why?Ó, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 4 (1991);

S. Bialer, The Soviet Paradox: External Expansion, Internal Decline, New York, 1986;

M. Buckley, ed, Perestroika and Soviet Women, Cambridge, 1992;

W.D. Connor, The Accidental Proletariat: Workers, Politics and Crisis in GorbachevÕs Russia, Princeton, 1991;

K. Eichermacher, D. Kretzschmar, K. Waschik, Russland, wohin eilst du? Perestrojka und Kultur, Dortmund, 1996;

M. Ferretti, La memoria mutilata: la Russia ricorda, Milano, 1993 (a rich reconstruction);

D. Filtzer, Soviet Workers and the Collapse of Perestroika, Cambridge, 1994;

H. Herlemann, ed., The Quality of Life in the Soviet Union, Boulder, CO., 1987;

A. Jones, W.D. Connor, D.E. Powell, Soviet Social Problems, Boulder, 1991;

P. Joseph, ed., The Soviet Economy After Brezhnev, Brussels, 1984;

B. Kerblay, M. Lavigne, Les SoviŽtiques des annŽes 80, 2e ed., Paris, 1987;

S. Kotkin, Steeltown USSR: Soviet Society in the Gorbachev Era, Berkeley, 1991;

R. Lesnik, LÕempire corrompu, Paris, 1990;
L. Lopatin,
Istoriia rabochego dvizheniia Kuzbassa 1989-1991, Plast, Kemerovo, 1995;

D.R. Marples, The Social Impact of the Chernobyl Disaster, Edmonton, 1988;

Z.A. Medvedev, The Legacy of Chernobyl, New York, 1990;

R.F. Mould, Chernobyl Record: The Definitive History of the Chernobyl Catastrophe, Philadelphia, PA, 2000;

R. Paasilinna, Glasnost and Soviet Television, 1985-1991, Helsinki, 1995;

F. du Plessix Gray, Soviet Women: Walking the Tight Rope, New York, 1990;

K.E. Smith, Remembering StalinÕs Victims: Popular Memory and the End of the USSR, Ithaca, NY, 1996;

D. Tarschys, ŅThe Success of a Failure: GorbachevÕs Alcohol Policy,Ó Europe-Asia Studies, 1 (1993);

V. Treml, Drinking and Alcohol Abuse in the USSR in the 1980s, in A. Jones et al., eds., Soviet Social Problems, Boulder, CO, 1991;

S. White, Russia Goes Dry. Alcohol, State and Society, Cambridge, 1996.


DIIIg4. The economy

A Study of the Soviet Economy, 3 vols., Washington, DC, 1991;

A. Aganbegian, Inside Perestroika: The Future of the Soviet Economy, New York, 1989;

A. slund, GorbachevÕs Struggle for Economic Reform, Ithaca, NY, 1991;

A. slund, How Russia Became a Market Economy, Washington, DC, 1995;

A. slund, ŅThe Myth of Output Collapse after Communism,Ó Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Working Paper, No. 18, 1991;

J.M. von Brabant, The Planned Economies and International Economic Organizations, Cambridge, 1991;

M. Ellman, V. Kontorovich, eds., The Disintegration of the Soviet Economic System, London, 1992;

M.I. Goldman, What Went Wrong with Perestroika, New York, 1991;

M.I. Goldman, Lost Opportunity: Why Economic Reforms in Russia Have Not Worked, New York, 1994;

P. Hanson, From Stagnation to Catastroika: Commentaries on the Soviet Economy, 1983-1991, New York, 1992;

V. Mau, ŅThe Road to Perestroika: Economics in the USSR and the Problems of Reforming the Soviet Economic Order,Ó Europe-Asia Studies, 2 (1996) (valuable);

W. Moskoff, ed., Perestroika in the Countryside: Agricultural Reform in the Gorbachev Era, Armonk, NY, 1990;

G. Popov, Blesk i nishcheta administrativnoi sistemy, Moscow, 1990;

La situation Žconomique et les rŽformes en Union SoviŽtique, Rapport de la Commission EuropŽenne, Paris, 1990;

I. et B. Szelenyi, ŅWhy Socialism Failed: Toward a Theory of System BreakdownŃCauses of Disintegration of East European State Socialism,Ó Theory and Society, 23, 2 (1994);

F. Seurot, Les causes Žconomiques de la fin de lÕEmpire soviŽtique, Paris, 1996 ;

S.L. Solnick, Stealing the State: Control and Collapse in Soviet Institutions, Cambridge, MA, 1998 (a stimulating hypothesis);

U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, East European Economies: Slow Growth in the 1980s, 3 vols., Washington, DC, 1985-1986;

P. Wiles, ed., The Soviet Economy on the Brink of Reform: Essays in Honour of Alec Nove, London, 1988;

T. Zaslavskaya, LinkThe Second Socialist Revolution: An Alternative Soviet Strategy, Bloomington, 1990.


DIIIg5. Nationalities

J. Arveds Trapans, ed., Towards Independence. The Baltic Popular Movements, Boulder, 1991;

R.M. Bahry, ed., Echoes of Glasnost in Soviet Ukraine, North York, Ont., 1989;

M.R. Beissinger, Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet State, Cambridge, 2002 (important);

B. Nahaylo, The Ukrainian Resurgence, Toronto, 1999;

M. Buttino, ed., In a Collapsing Empire: Underdevelopment, Ethnic Conflicts and Nationalisms in the Soviet Union, Milano, 1993;

H. Carrre dÕEncausse, The End of the Soviet Empire: The Triumph of Nations, New York, 1993;

G. CharachidzŽ, ŅLÕempire et Babel: les minoritŽs face a la perestro•kaÓ, Le genre humain, 20 (1989);

J. Critchlow, Nationalism in Uzbekistan: A Soviet RepublicÕs Road to Sovereignty, Boulder, 1991;

J.I. Dawson, Eco-Nationalism: Anti-Nuclear Activism and National Identity in Russia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, Durham: Duke University Press, 1996;

J.B. Dunlop, The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Empire, Princeton, 1993 (important);

R. Karklins, Ethnopolitics and Transition to Democracy: The Collapse of the Soviet Union and Latvia, Baltimore, MD, 1994;

S. Kondrashov, Nationalism and the Drive for Sovereignity in Tatarstan, 1988-1992, Basingstoke, 2000;

G.W. Lapidus, V. Zaslavsky, From Union to Commonwealth: Nationalism and Separatism in the Soviet Republics, Cambridge, 1992;

D.R. Marples, Ukraine under Perestroika: Ecology, Economics, and the WorkersÕ Revolt, London, 1991;

E. Melander, ŅThe Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict Revisited: Was the War Inevitable?Ó Journal of Cold War Studies, 2 (2001); 

E. OÕBallance, Wars in the Caucasus, 1990-1995, New York, 1997;

A.E. Senn, GorbachevÕs Failure in Lithuania, New York, 1995;

S. Chahmouradian, R. Mehl, La tragŽdie de Sumga•t, Paris, 1991;

R.G. Suny, The Revenge of the Past: Nationalism, Revolution, and the Collapse of the Soviet Union, Stanford, 1993;

R. Szporluk, Russia, Ukraine, and the Breakup of the Soviet Union, Stanford, 2000 (important);

R. Taagepera, Estonia: Return to Independence, Boulder, Co, 1993;

E.W. Walker, Dissolution: Sovereignity and the Breakup of the Soviet Union, Lanham, 2003;

J. Zaprudnik, Belarus. At a Crossroad in History, Boulder, CO, 1993.


DIIIg6. Foreign policy

J.B. Amstutz, Afghanistan: the first five years of Soviet occupation, Washington, DC, 1986;

A. Arnold, The Fateful Pebble: AfghanistanÕs Role in the Fall of the Soviet Empire, Novato, CA, 1993;

A. Borovik, The Hidden War: A Russian JournalistÕs Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan, Boston, 1990;

G.W. Breslauer, H. Kreisler, B. Ward, eds., Beyond the Cold War: Conflict and Cooperation in the Third World, Berkeley, 1991;

Cold War International History Project Bulletin, 12-13 (2001), The End of the Cold War (remarkable);

D. Cordovez, S.S. Harrison, Out of Afghanistan: The Inside History of the Soviet Withdrawal, Oxford, 1995;

M. Galeotti, Afghanistan. The Soviet UnionÕs Last War, London 1995;

R.L. Garthoff, The Great Transition: American-Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War, Washington, DC, 1994;

B.V. Gromov, Ogranichennyi kontingent, Moscow, 1994;

P. Kende, A. Smolar, eds., La grande secousse. Europe de lÕEst, 1989-1990, Paris, 1990;

M. Kramer, ŅRealism, Ideology, and the End of the Cold War,Ó Review of International Studies, 1 (2001) (important);

J. LŽvesque, The Enigma of 1989: The USSR and the Liberation of Eastern Europe, Berkeley, 1997 (important);

S. Mendelson, Changing Course: Ideas, Politics, and the Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan, Princeton, 1998;

P. Palazchenko, My Years with Gorbachev and Shevardnadze: The Memoir of a Soviet Interpreter, University Park, PA, 1997;

A.E. Stent, Russia and Germany Reborn: Unification, the Soviet Collapse and the New Europe, Princeton, 2000;

G. Stokes, The Walls Came Tumbling Down: The Collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, New York, 1993.